On shopping websites, product images of low quality negatively affect customer experience. Although there are plenty of work in detecting images with different defects, few efforts have been dedicated to correct those defects at scale. A major challenge is that there are thousands of product types and each has specific defects, therefore building defect specific models is unscalable. In this paper, we propose a unified Image-to-Image (I2I) translation model to correct multiple defects across different product types. Our model leverages an attention mechanism to hierarchically incorporate high-level defect groups and specific defect types to guide the network to focus on defect-related image regions. Evaluated on eight public datasets, our model reduces the Frechet Inception Distance (FID) by 24.6% in average compared with MoNCE, the state-of-the-art I2I method. Unlike public data, another practical challenge on shopping websites is that some paired images are of low quality. Therefore we design our model to be semi-paired by combining the L1 loss of paired data with the cycle loss of unpaired data. Tested on a shopping website dataset to correct three image defects, our model reduces (FID) by 63.2% in average compared with WS-I2I, the state-of-the art semi-paired I2I method.
Semi-supervised learning (SSL) has become a crucial approach in deep learning as a way to address the challenge of limited labeled data. The success of deep neural networks heavily relies on the availability of large-scale high-quality labeled data. However, the process of data labeling is time-consuming and unscalable, leading to shortages in labeled data. SSL aims to tackle this problem by leveraging additional unlabeled data in the training process. One of the popular SSL algorithms, FixMatch, trains identical weight-sharing teacher and student networks simultaneously using a siamese neural network (SNN). However, it is prone to performance degradation when the pseudo labels are heavily noisy in the early training stage. We present KD-FixMatch, a novel SSL algorithm that addresses the limitations of FixMatch by incorporating knowledge distillation. The algorithm utilizes a combination of sequential and simultaneous training of SNNs to enhance performance and reduce performance degradation. Firstly, an outer SNN is trained using labeled and unlabeled data. After that, the network of the well-trained outer SNN generates pseudo labels for the unlabeled data, from which a subset of unlabeled data with trusted pseudo labels is then carefully created through high-confidence sampling and deep embedding clustering. Finally, an inner SNN is trained with the labeled data, the unlabeled data, and the subset of unlabeled data with trusted pseudo labels. Experiments on four public data sets demonstrate that KD-FixMatch outperforms FixMatch in all cases. Our results indicate that KD-FixMatch has a better training starting point that leads to improved model performance compared to FixMatch.
In this paper, we introduce AdaSelection, an adaptive sub-sampling method to identify the most informative sub-samples within each minibatch to speed up the training of large-scale deep learning models without sacrificing model performance. Our method is able to flexibly combines an arbitrary number of baseline sub-sampling methods incorporating the method-level importance and intra-method sample-level importance at each iteration. The standard practice of ad-hoc sampling often leads to continuous training with vast amounts of data from production environments. To improve the selection of data instances during forward and backward passes, we propose recording a constant amount of information per instance from these passes. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method by testing it across various types of inputs and tasks, including the classification tasks on both image and language datasets, as well as regression tasks. Compared with industry-standard baselines, AdaSelection consistently displays superior performance.
Text-to-image generative models have demonstrated remarkable capabilities in generating high-quality images based on textual prompts. However, crafting prompts that accurately capture the user's creative intent remains challenging. It often involves laborious trial-and-error procedures to ensure that the model interprets the prompts in alignment with the user's intention. To address the challenges, we present Promptify, an interactive system that supports prompt exploration and refinement for text-to-image generative models. Promptify utilizes a suggestion engine powered by large language models to help users quickly explore and craft diverse prompts. Our interface allows users to organize the generated images flexibly, and based on their preferences, Promptify suggests potential changes to the original prompt. This feedback loop enables users to iteratively refine their prompts and enhance desired features while avoiding unwanted ones. Our user study shows that Promptify effectively facilitates the text-to-image workflow and outperforms an existing baseline tool widely used for text-to-image generation.
Conversational agents show the promise to allow users to interact with mobile devices using language. However, to perform diverse UI tasks with natural language, developers typically need to create separate datasets and models for each specific task, which is expensive and effort-consuming. Recently, pre-trained large language models (LLMs) have been shown capable of generalizing to various downstream tasks when prompted with a handful of examples from the target task. This paper investigates the feasibility of enabling versatile conversational interactions with mobile UIs using a single LLM. We propose a design space to categorize conversations between the user and the agent when collaboratively accomplishing mobile tasks. We design prompting techniques to adapt an LLM to conversational tasks on mobile UIs. The experiments show that our approach enables various conversational interactions with decent performances, manifesting its feasibility. We discuss the use cases of our work and its implications for language-based mobile interaction.
Modern Web systems such as social media and e-commerce contain rich contents expressed in images and text. Leveraging information from multi-modalities can improve the performance of machine learning tasks such as classification and recommendation. In this paper, we propose the Cross-Modality Attention Contrastive Language-Image Pre-training (CMA-CLIP), a new framework which unifies two types of cross-modality attentions, sequence-wise attention and modality-wise attention, to effectively fuse information from image and text pairs. The sequence-wise attention enables the framework to capture the fine-grained relationship between image patches and text tokens, while the modality-wise attention weighs each modality by its relevance to the downstream tasks. In addition, by adding task specific modality-wise attentions and multilayer perceptrons, our proposed framework is capable of performing multi-task classification with multi-modalities. We conduct experiments on a Major Retail Website Product Attribute (MRWPA) dataset and two public datasets, Food101 and Fashion-Gen. The results show that CMA-CLIP outperforms the pre-trained and fine-tuned CLIP by an average of 11.9% in recall at the same level of precision on the MRWPA dataset for multi-task classification. It also surpasses the state-of-the-art method on Fashion-Gen Dataset by 5.5% in accuracy and achieves competitive performance on Food101 Dataset. Through detailed ablation studies, we further demonstrate the effectiveness of both cross-modality attention modules and our method's robustness against noise in image and text inputs, which is a common challenge in practice.
Mobile User Interface Summarization generates succinct language descriptions of mobile screens for conveying important contents and functionalities of the screen, which can be useful for many language-based application scenarios. We present Screen2Words, a novel screen summarization approach that automatically encapsulates essential information of a UI screen into a coherent language phrase. Summarizing mobile screens requires a holistic understanding of the multi-modal data of mobile UIs, including text, image, structures as well as UI semantics, motivating our multi-modal learning approach. We collected and analyzed a large-scale screen summarization dataset annotated by human workers. Our dataset contains more than 112k language summarization across $\sim$22k unique UI screens. We then experimented with a set of deep models with different configurations. Our evaluation of these models with both automatic accuracy metrics and human rating shows that our approach can generate high-quality summaries for mobile screens. We demonstrate potential use cases of Screen2Words and open-source our dataset and model to lay the foundations for further bridging language and user interfaces.