Dataset distillation methods offer the promise of reducing a large-scale dataset down to a significantly smaller set of (potentially synthetic) training examples, which preserve sufficient information for training a new model from scratch. So far dataset distillation methods have been developed for image classification. However, with the rise in capabilities of vision-language models, and especially given the scale of datasets necessary to train these models, the time is ripe to expand dataset distillation methods beyond image classification. In this work, we take the first steps towards this goal by expanding on the idea of trajectory matching to create a distillation method for vision-language datasets. The key challenge is that vision-language datasets do not have a set of discrete classes. To overcome this, our proposed multimodal dataset distillation method jointly distill the images and their corresponding language descriptions in a contrastive formulation. Since there are no existing baselines, we compare our approach to three coreset selection methods (strategic subsampling of the training dataset), which we adapt to the vision-language setting. We demonstrate significant improvements on the challenging Flickr30K and COCO retrieval benchmark: the best coreset selection method which selects 1000 image-text pairs for training is able to achieve only 5.6% image-to-text retrieval accuracy (recall@1); in contrast, our dataset distillation approach almost doubles that with just 100 (an order of magnitude fewer) training pairs.
Applying powerful generative denoising diffusion models (DDMs) for downstream tasks such as image semantic editing usually requires either fine-tuning pre-trained DDMs or learning auxiliary editing networks. In this work, we achieve SOTA semantic control performance on various application settings by optimizing the denoising trajectory solely via frozen DDMs. As one of the first optimization-based diffusion editing work, we start by seeking a more comprehensive understanding of the intermediate high-dimensional latent spaces by theoretically and empirically analyzing their probabilistic and geometric behaviors in the Markov chain. We then propose to further explore the critical step in the denoising trajectory that characterizes the convergence of a pre-trained DDM. Last but not least, we further present our method to search for the semantic subspaces boundaries for controllable manipulation, by guiding the denoising trajectory towards the targeted boundary at the critical convergent step. We conduct extensive experiments on various DPMs architectures (DDPM, iDDPM) and datasets (CelebA, CelebA-HQ, LSUN-church, LSUN-bedroom, AFHQ-dog) with different resolutions (64, 256) as empirical demonstrations.
We propose an algorithm that compresses the critical information of a large dataset into compact addressable memories. These memories can then be recalled to quickly re-train a neural network and recover the performance (instead of storing and re-training on the full original dataset). Building upon the dataset distillation framework, we make a key observation that a shared common representation allows for more efficient and effective distillation. Concretely, we learn a set of bases (aka "memories") which are shared between classes and combined through learned flexible addressing functions to generate a diverse set of training examples. This leads to several benefits: 1) the size of compressed data does not necessarily grow linearly with the number of classes; 2) an overall higher compression rate with more effective distillation is achieved; and 3) more generalized queries are allowed beyond recalling the original classes. We demonstrate state-of-the-art results on the dataset distillation task across five benchmarks, including up to 16.5% and 9.7% in retained accuracy improvement when distilling CIFAR10 and CIFAR100 respectively. We then leverage our framework to perform continual learning, achieving state-of-the-art results on four benchmarks, with 23.2% accuracy improvement on MANY.
We propose an approach to generate images of people given a desired appearance and pose. Disentangled representations of pose and appearance are necessary to handle the compound variability in the resulting generated images. Hence, we develop an approach based on intermediate representations of poses and appearance: our pose-guided appearance rendering network firstly encodes the targets' poses using an encoder-decoder neural network. Then the targets' appearances are encoded by learning adaptive appearance filters using a fully convolutional network. Finally, these filters are placed in the encoder-decoder neural networks to complete the rendering. We demonstrate that our model can generate images and videos that are superior to state-of-the-art methods, and can handle pose guided appearance rendering in both image and video generation.
The ability to perform effective planning is crucial for building an instruction-following agent. When navigating through a new environment, an agent is challenged with (1) connecting the natural language instructions with its progressively growing knowledge of the world; and (2) performing long-range planning and decision making in the form of effective exploration and error correction. Current methods are still limited on both fronts despite extensive efforts. In this paper, we introduce the Evolving Graphical Planner (EGP), a model that performs global planning for navigation based on raw sensory input. The model dynamically constructs a graphical representation, generalizes the action space to allow for more flexible decision making, and performs efficient planning on a proxy graph representation. We evaluate our model on a challenging Vision-and-Language Navigation (VLN) task with photorealistic images and achieve superior performance compared to previous navigation architectures. For instance, we achieve a 53% success rate on the test split of the Room-to-Room navigation task through pure imitation learning, outperforming previous navigation architectures by up to 5%.
Learning to follow instructions is of fundamental importance to autonomous agents for vision-and-language navigation (VLN). In this paper, we study how an agent can navigate long paths when learning from a corpus that consists of shorter ones. We show that existing state-of-the-art agents do not generalize well. To this end, we propose BabyWalk, a new VLN agent that is learned to navigate by decomposing long instructions into shorter ones (BabySteps) and completing them sequentially. A special design memory buffer is used by the agent to turn its past experiences into contexts for future steps. The learning process is composed of two phases. In the first phase, the agent uses imitation learning from demonstration to accomplish BabySteps. In the second phase, the agent uses curriculum-based reinforcement learning to maximize rewards on navigation tasks with increasingly longer instructions. We create two new benchmark datasets (of long navigation tasks) and use them in conjunction with existing ones to examine BabyWalk's generalization ability. Empirical results show that BabyWalk achieves state-of-the-art results on several metrics, in particular, is able to follow long instructions better. The codes and the datasets are released on our project page https://github.com/Sha-Lab/babywalk.
In the Vision-and-Language Navigation (VLN) task, an agent with egocentric vision navigates to a destination given natural language instructions. The act of manually annotating these instructions is timely and expensive, such that many existing approaches automatically generate additional samples to improve agent performance. However, these approaches still have difficulty generalizing their performance to new environments. In this work, we investigate the popular Room-to-Room (R2R) VLN benchmark and discover that what is important is not only the amount of data you synthesize, but also how you do it. We find that shortest path sampling, which is used by both the R2R benchmark and existing augmentation methods, encode biases in the action space of the agent which we dub as action priors. We then show that these action priors offer one explanation toward the poor generalization of existing works. To mitigate such priors, we propose a path sampling method based on random walks to augment the data. By training with this augmentation strategy, our agent is able to generalize better to unknown environments compared to the baseline, significantly improving model performance in the process.
A general graph-structured neural network architecture operates on graphs through two core components: (1) complex enough message functions; (2) a fixed information aggregation process. In this paper, we present the Policy Message Passing algorithm, which takes a probabilistic perspective and reformulates the whole information aggregation as stochastic sequential processes. The algorithm works on a much larger search space, utilizes reasoning history to perform inference, and is robust to noisy edges. We apply our algorithm to multiple complex graph reasoning and prediction tasks and show that our algorithm consistently outperforms state-of-the-art graph-structured models by a significant margin.
In this paper, we propose Continuous Graph Flow, a generative continuous flow based method that aims to model distributions of graph-structured complex data. The model is formulated as an ordinary differential equation system with shared and reusable functions that operate over the graph structure. This leads to a new type of neural graph message passing scheme that performs continuous message passing over time. This class of models offer several advantages: (1) modeling complex graphical distributions without rigid assumptions on the distributions; (2) not limited to modeling data of fixed dimensions and can generalize probability evaluation and data generation over unseen subset of variables; (3) the underlying continuous graph message passing process is reversible and memory-efficient. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our model on two generation tasks, namely, image puzzle generation, and layout generation from scene graphs. Compared to unstructured and structured latent-space VAE models, we show that our proposed model achieves significant performance improvement (up to 400% in negative log-likelihood).