Get our free extension to see links to code for papers anywhere online!Free add-on: code for papers everywhere!Free add-on: See code for papers anywhere!

Authors:Lazar Atanackovic, Xi Zhang, Brandon Amos, Mathieu Blanchette, Leo J. Lee, Yoshua Bengio, Alexander Tong, Kirill Neklyudov

Abstract:Numerous biological and physical processes can be modeled as systems of interacting entities evolving continuously over time, e.g. the dynamics of communicating cells or physical particles. Learning the dynamics of such systems is essential for predicting the temporal evolution of populations across novel samples and unseen environments. Flow-based models allow for learning these dynamics at the population level - they model the evolution of the entire distribution of samples. However, current flow-based models are limited to a single initial population and a set of predefined conditions which describe different dynamics. We argue that multiple processes in natural sciences have to be represented as vector fields on the Wasserstein manifold of probability densities. That is, the change of the population at any moment in time depends on the population itself due to the interactions between samples. In particular, this is crucial for personalized medicine where the development of diseases and their respective treatment response depends on the microenvironment of cells specific to each patient. We propose Meta Flow Matching (MFM), a practical approach to integrating along these vector fields on the Wasserstein manifold by amortizing the flow model over the initial populations. Namely, we embed the population of samples using a Graph Neural Network (GNN) and use these embeddings to train a Flow Matching model. This gives MFM the ability to generalize over the initial distributions unlike previously proposed methods. We demonstrate the ability of MFM to improve prediction of individual treatment responses on a large scale multi-patient single-cell drug screen dataset.

Via

Abstract:Large language models (LLMs) with billions of parameters excel at predicting the next token in a sequence. Recent work computes non-vacuous compression-based generalization bounds for LLMs, but these bounds are vacuous for large models at the billion-parameter scale. Moreover, these bounds are obtained through restrictive compression techniques, bounding compressed models that generate low-quality text. Additionally, the tightness of these existing bounds depends on the number of IID documents in a training set rather than the much larger number of non-IID constituent tokens, leaving untapped potential for tighter bounds. In this work, we instead use properties of martingales to derive generalization bounds that benefit from the vast number of tokens in LLM training sets. Since a dataset contains far more tokens than documents, our generalization bounds not only tolerate but actually benefit from far less restrictive compression schemes. With Monarch matrices, Kronecker factorizations, and post-training quantization, we achieve non-vacuous generalization bounds for LLMs as large as LLaMA2-70B. Unlike previous approaches, our work achieves the first non-vacuous bounds for models that are deployed in practice and generate high-quality text.

Via

Abstract:We investigate the optimal transport problem between probability measures when the underlying cost function is understood to satisfy a least action principle, also known as a Lagrangian cost. These generalizations are useful when connecting observations from a physical system where the transport dynamics are influenced by the geometry of the system, such as obstacles (e.g., incorporating barrier functions in the Lagrangian), and allows practitioners to incorporate a priori knowledge of the underlying system such as non-Euclidean geometries (e.g., paths must be circular). Our contributions are of computational interest, where we demonstrate the ability to efficiently compute geodesics and amortize spline-based paths, which has not been done before, even in low dimensional problems. Unlike prior work, we also output the resulting Lagrangian optimal transport map without requiring an ODE solver. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our formulation on low-dimensional examples taken from prior work. The source code to reproduce our experiments is available at https://github.com/facebookresearch/lagrangian-ot.

Via

Abstract:While recently Large Language Models (LLMs) have achieved remarkable successes, they are vulnerable to certain jailbreaking attacks that lead to generation of inappropriate or harmful content. Manual red-teaming requires finding adversarial prompts that cause such jailbreaking, e.g. by appending a suffix to a given instruction, which is inefficient and time-consuming. On the other hand, automatic adversarial prompt generation often leads to semantically meaningless attacks that can easily be detected by perplexity-based filters, may require gradient information from the TargetLLM, or do not scale well due to time-consuming discrete optimization processes over the token space. In this paper, we present a novel method that uses another LLM, called the AdvPrompter, to generate human-readable adversarial prompts in seconds, $\sim800\times$ faster than existing optimization-based approaches. We train the AdvPrompter using a novel algorithm that does not require access to the gradients of the TargetLLM. This process alternates between two steps: (1) generating high-quality target adversarial suffixes by optimizing the AdvPrompter predictions, and (2) low-rank fine-tuning of the AdvPrompter with the generated adversarial suffixes. The trained AdvPrompter generates suffixes that veil the input instruction without changing its meaning, such that the TargetLLM is lured to give a harmful response. Experimental results on popular open source TargetLLMs show state-of-the-art results on the AdvBench dataset, that also transfer to closed-source black-box LLM APIs. Further, we demonstrate that by fine-tuning on a synthetic dataset generated by AdvPrompter, LLMs can be made more robust against jailbreaking attacks while maintaining performance, i.e. high MMLU scores.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Deep learning models are often deployed in downstream tasks that the training procedure may not be aware of. For example, models solely trained to achieve accurate predictions may struggle to perform well on downstream tasks because seemingly small prediction errors may incur drastic task errors. The standard end-to-end learning approach is to make the task loss differentiable or to introduce a differentiable surrogate that the model can be trained on. In these settings, the task loss needs to be carefully balanced with the prediction loss because they may have conflicting objectives. We propose take the task loss signal one level deeper than the parameters of the model and use it to learn the parameters of the loss function the model is trained on, which can be done by learning a metric in the prediction space. This approach does not alter the optimal prediction model itself, but rather changes the model learning to emphasize the information important for the downstream task. This enables us to achieve the best of both worlds: a prediction model trained in the original prediction space while also being valuable for the desired downstream task. We validate our approach through experiments conducted in two main settings: 1) decision-focused model learning scenarios involving portfolio optimization and budget allocation, and 2) reinforcement learning in noisy environments with distracting states. The source code to reproduce our experiments is available at https://github.com/facebookresearch/taskmet

Via

Abstract:Stochastic optimal control, which has the goal of driving the behavior of noisy systems, is broadly applicable in science, engineering and artificial intelligence. Our work introduces Stochastic Optimal Control Matching (SOCM), a novel Iterative Diffusion Optimization (IDO) technique for stochastic optimal control that stems from the same philosophy as the conditional score matching loss for diffusion models. That is, the control is learned via a least squares problem by trying to fit a matching vector field. The training loss, which is closely connected to the cross-entropy loss, is optimized with respect to both the control function and a family of reparameterization matrices which appear in the matching vector field. The optimization with respect to the reparameterization matrices aims at minimizing the variance of the matching vector field. Experimentally, our algorithm achieves lower error than all the existing IDO techniques for stochastic optimal control for four different control settings. The key idea underlying SOCM is the path-wise reparameterization trick, a novel technique that is of independent interest, e.g., for generative modeling.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:We introduce a machine-learning framework to warm-start fixed-point optimization algorithms. Our architecture consists of a neural network mapping problem parameters to warm starts, followed by a predefined number of fixed-point iterations. We propose two loss functions designed to either minimize the fixed-point residual or the distance to a ground truth solution. In this way, the neural network predicts warm starts with the end-to-end goal of minimizing the downstream loss. An important feature of our architecture is its flexibility, in that it can predict a warm start for fixed-point algorithms run for any number of steps, without being limited to the number of steps it has been trained on. We provide PAC-Bayes generalization bounds on unseen data for common classes of fixed-point operators: contractive, linearly convergent, and averaged. Applying this framework to well-known applications in control, statistics, and signal processing, we observe a significant reduction in the number of iterations and solution time required to solve these problems, through learned warm starts.

Via

Authors:Arman Zharmagambetov, Brandon Amos, Aaron Ferber, Taoan Huang, Bistra Dilkina, Yuandong Tian

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Recent works in learning-integrated optimization have shown promise in settings where the optimization problem is only partially observed or where general-purpose optimizers perform poorly without expert tuning. By learning an optimizer $\mathbf{g}$ to tackle these challenging problems with $f$ as the objective, the optimization process can be substantially accelerated by leveraging past experience. The optimizer can be trained with supervision from known optimal solutions or implicitly by optimizing the compound function $f\circ \mathbf{g}$. The implicit approach may not require optimal solutions as labels and is capable of handling problem uncertainty; however, it is slow to train and deploy due to frequent calls to optimizer $\mathbf{g}$ during both training and testing. The training is further challenged by sparse gradients of $\mathbf{g}$, especially for combinatorial solvers. To address these challenges, we propose using a smooth and learnable Landscape Surrogate $M$ as a replacement for $f\circ \mathbf{g}$. This surrogate, learnable by neural networks, can be computed faster than the solver $\mathbf{g}$, provides dense and smooth gradients during training, can generalize to unseen optimization problems, and is efficiently learned via alternating optimization. We test our approach on both synthetic problems, including shortest path and multidimensional knapsack, and real-world problems such as portfolio optimization, achieving comparable or superior objective values compared to state-of-the-art baselines while reducing the number of calls to $\mathbf{g}$. Notably, our approach outperforms existing methods for computationally expensive high-dimensional problems.

Via

Authors:Aram-Alexandre Pooladian, Heli Ben-Hamu, Carles Domingo-Enrich, Brandon Amos, Yaron Lipman, Ricky Chen

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Simulation-free methods for training continuous-time generative models construct probability paths that go between noise distributions and individual data samples. Recent works, such as Flow Matching, derived paths that are optimal for each data sample. However, these algorithms rely on independent data and noise samples, and do not exploit underlying structure in the data distribution for constructing probability paths. We propose Multisample Flow Matching, a more general framework that uses non-trivial couplings between data and noise samples while satisfying the correct marginal constraints. At very small overhead costs, this generalization allows us to (i) reduce gradient variance during training, (ii) obtain straighter flows for the learned vector field, which allows us to generate high-quality samples using fewer function evaluations, and (iii) obtain transport maps with lower cost in high dimensions, which has applications beyond generative modeling. Importantly, we do so in a completely simulation-free manner with a simple minimization objective. We show that our proposed methods improve sample consistency on downsampled ImageNet data sets, and lead to better low-cost sample generation.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Natural agents can effectively learn from multiple data sources that differ in size, quality, and types of measurements. We study this heterogeneity in the context of offline reinforcement learning (RL) by introducing a new, practically motivated semi-supervised setting. Here, an agent has access to two sets of trajectories: labelled trajectories containing state, action, reward triplets at every timestep, along with unlabelled trajectories that contain only state and reward information. For this setting, we develop a simple meta-algorithmic pipeline that learns an inverse-dynamics model on the labelled data to obtain proxy-labels for the unlabelled data, followed by the use of any offline RL algorithm on the true and proxy-labelled trajectories. Empirically, we find this simple pipeline to be highly successful -- on several D4RL benchmarks \cite{fu2020d4rl}, certain offline RL algorithms can match the performance of variants trained on a fully labeled dataset even when we label only 10\% trajectories from the low return regime. Finally, we perform a large-scale controlled empirical study investigating the interplay of data-centric properties of the labelled and unlabelled datasets, with algorithmic design choices (e.g., inverse dynamics, offline RL algorithm) to identify general trends and best practices for training RL agents on semi-supervised offline datasets.

Via