New methods for carbon dioxide removal are urgently needed to combat global climate change. Direct air capture (DAC) is an emerging technology to capture carbon dioxide directly from ambient air. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been widely studied as potentially customizable adsorbents for DAC. However, discovering promising MOF sorbents for DAC is challenging because of the vast chemical space to explore and the need to understand materials as functions of humidity and temperature. We explore a computational approach benefiting from recent innovations in machine learning (ML) and present a dataset named Open DAC 2023 (ODAC23) consisting of more than 38M density functional theory (DFT) calculations on more than 8,800 MOF materials containing adsorbed CO2 and/or H2O. ODAC23 is by far the largest dataset of MOF adsorption calculations at the DFT level of accuracy currently available. In addition to probing properties of adsorbed molecules, the dataset is a rich source of information on structural relaxation of MOFs, which will be useful in many contexts beyond specific applications for DAC. A large number of MOFs with promising properties for DAC are identified directly in ODAC23. We also trained state-of-the-art ML models on this dataset to approximate calculations at the DFT level. This open-source dataset and our initial ML models will provide an important baseline for future efforts to identify MOFs for a wide range of applications, including DAC.
Modeling the energy and forces of atomic systems is a fundamental problem in computational chemistry with the potential to help address many of the world's most pressing problems, including those related to energy scarcity and climate change. These calculations are traditionally performed using Density Functional Theory, which is computationally very expensive. Machine learning has the potential to dramatically improve the efficiency of these calculations from days or hours to seconds. We propose the Spherical Channel Network (SCN) to model atomic energies and forces. The SCN is a graph neural network where nodes represent atoms and edges their neighboring atoms. The atom embeddings are a set of spherical functions, called spherical channels, represented using spherical harmonics. We demonstrate, that by rotating the embeddings based on the 3D edge orientation, more information may be utilized while maintaining the rotational equivariance of the messages. While equivariance is a desirable property, we find that by relaxing this constraint in both message passing and aggregation, improved accuracy may be achieved. We demonstrate state-of-the-art results on the large-scale Open Catalyst 2020 dataset in both energy and force prediction for numerous tasks and metrics.
Self-supervised learning (SSL) of speech representations has received much attention over the last few years but most work has focused on languages and domains with an abundance of unlabeled data. However, for many languages there is a shortage even in the unlabeled data which limits the effectiveness of SSL. In this work, we focus on the problem of applying SSL to domains with limited available data by leveraging data augmentation for Wav2Vec 2.0 pretraining. Further, we propose improvements to each component of the model which result in a combined relative word error rate (WER) improvement of up to 13% compared to Wav2Vec 2.0 on Librispeech test-clean / other.
Computational catalysis and machine learning communities have made considerable progress in developing machine learning models for catalyst discovery and design. Yet, a general machine learning potential that spans the chemical space of catalysis is still out of reach. A significant hurdle is obtaining access to training data across a wide range of materials. One important class of materials where data is lacking are oxides, which inhibits models from studying the Oxygen Evolution Reaction and oxide electrocatalysis more generally. To address this we developed the Open Catalyst 2022(OC22) dataset, consisting of 62,521 Density Functional Theory (DFT) relaxations (~9,884,504 single point calculations) across a range of oxide materials, coverages, and adsorbates (*H, *O, *N, *C, *OOH, *OH, *OH2, *O2, *CO). We define generalized tasks to predict the total system energy that are applicable across catalysis, develop baseline performance of several graph neural networks (SchNet, DimeNet++, ForceNet, SpinConv, PaiNN, GemNet-dT, GemNet-OC), and provide pre-defined dataset splits to establish clear benchmarks for future efforts. For all tasks, we study whether combining datasets leads to better results, even if they contain different materials or adsorbates. Specifically, we jointly train models on Open Catalyst 2020 (OC20) Dataset and OC22, or fine-tune pretrained OC20 models on OC22. In the most general task, GemNet-OC sees a ~32% improvement in energy predictions through fine-tuning and a ~9% improvement in force predictions via joint training. Surprisingly, joint training on both the OC20 and much smaller OC22 datasets also improves total energy predictions on OC20 by ~19%. The dataset and baseline models are open sourced, and a public leaderboard will follow to encourage continued community developments on the total energy tasks and data.
The predominant method of demonstrating progress of atomic graph neural networks are benchmarks on small and limited datasets. The implicit hypothesis behind this approach is that progress on these narrow datasets generalize to the large diversity of chemistry. This generalizability would be very helpful for research, but currently remains untested. In this work we test this assumption by identifying four aspects of complexity in which many datasets are lacking: 1. Chemical diversity (number of different elements), 2. system size (number of atoms per sample), 3. dataset size (number of data samples), and 4. domain shift (similarity of the training and test set). We introduce multiple subsets of the large Open Catalyst 2020 (OC20) dataset to independently investigate each of these aspects. We then perform 21 ablation studies and sensitivity analyses on 9 datasets testing both previously proposed and new model enhancements. We find that some improvements are consistent between datasets, but many are not and some even have opposite effects. Based on this analysis, we identify a smaller dataset that correlates well with the full OC20 dataset, and propose the GemNet-OC model, which outperforms the previous state-of-the-art on OC20 by 16%, while reducing training time by a factor of 10. Overall, our findings challenge the common belief that graph neural networks work equally well independent of dataset size and diversity, and suggest that caution must be exercised when making generalizations based on narrow datasets.
Recent progress in Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) for modeling atomic simulations has the potential to revolutionize catalyst discovery, which is a key step in making progress towards the energy breakthroughs needed to combat climate change. However, the GNNs that have proven most effective for this task are memory intensive as they model higher-order interactions in the graphs such as those between triplets or quadruplets of atoms, making it challenging to scale these models. In this paper, we introduce Graph Parallelism, a method to distribute input graphs across multiple GPUs, enabling us to train very large GNNs with hundreds of millions or billions of parameters. We empirically evaluate our method by scaling up the number of parameters of the recently proposed DimeNet++ and GemNet models by over an order of magnitude. On the large-scale Open Catalyst 2020 (OC20) dataset, these graph-parallelized models lead to relative improvements of 1) 15% on the force MAE metric for the S2EF task and 2) 21% on the AFbT metric for the IS2RS task, establishing new state-of-the-art results.
Progress towards the energy breakthroughs needed to combat climate change can be significantly accelerated through the efficient simulation of atomic systems. Simulation techniques based on first principles, such as Density Functional Theory (DFT), are limited in their practical use due to their high computational expense. Machine learning approaches have the potential to approximate DFT in a computationally efficient manner, which could dramatically increase the impact of computational simulations on real-world problems. Approximating DFT poses several challenges. These include accurately modeling the subtle changes in the relative positions and angles between atoms, and enforcing constraints such as rotation invariance or energy conservation. We introduce a novel approach to modeling angular information between sets of neighboring atoms in a graph neural network. Rotation invariance is achieved for the network's edge messages through the use of a per-edge local coordinate frame and a novel spin convolution over the remaining degree of freedom. Two model variants are proposed for the applications of structure relaxation and molecular dynamics. State-of-the-art results are demonstrated on the large-scale Open Catalyst 2020 dataset. Comparisons are also performed on the MD17 and QM9 datasets.
Self-supervised learning of speech representations has been a very active research area but most work is focused on a single domain such as read audio books for which there exist large quantities of labeled and unlabeled data. In this paper, we explore more general setups where the domain of the unlabeled data for pre-training data differs from the domain of the labeled data for fine-tuning, which in turn may differ from the test data domain. Our experiments show that using target domain data during pre-training leads to large performance improvements across a variety of setups. On a large-scale competitive setup, we show that pre-training on unlabeled in-domain data reduces the gap between models trained on in-domain and out-of-domain labeled data by 66%-73%. This has obvious practical implications since it is much easier to obtain unlabeled target domain data than labeled data. Moreover, we find that pre-training on multiple domains improves generalization performance on domains not seen during training. Code and models will be made available at https://github.com/pytorch/fairseq.
With massive amounts of atomic simulation data available, there is a huge opportunity to develop fast and accurate machine learning models to approximate expensive physics-based calculations. The key quantity to estimate is atomic forces, where the state-of-the-art Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) explicitly enforce basic physical constraints such as rotation-covariance. However, to strictly satisfy the physical constraints, existing models have to make tradeoffs between computational efficiency and model expressiveness. Here we explore an alternative approach. By not imposing explicit physical constraints, we can flexibly design expressive models while maintaining their computational efficiency. Physical constraints are implicitly imposed by training the models using physics-based data augmentation. To evaluate the approach, we carefully design a scalable and expressive GNN model, ForceNet, and apply it to OC20 (Chanussot et al., 2020), an unprecedentedly-large dataset of quantum physics calculations. Our proposed ForceNet is able to predict atomic forces more accurately than state-of-the-art physics-based GNNs while being faster both in training and inference. Overall, our promising and counter-intuitive results open up an exciting avenue for future research.
The rapid spread of COVID-19 cases in recent months has strained hospital resources, making rapid and accurate triage of patients presenting to emergency departments a necessity. Machine learning techniques using clinical data such as chest X-rays have been used to predict which patients are most at risk of deterioration. We consider the task of predicting two types of patient deterioration based on chest X-rays: adverse event deterioration (i.e., transfer to the intensive care unit, intubation, or mortality) and increased oxygen requirements beyond 6 L per day. Due to the relative scarcity of COVID-19 patient data, existing solutions leverage supervised pretraining on related non-COVID images, but this is limited by the differences between the pretraining data and the target COVID-19 patient data. In this paper, we use self-supervised learning based on the momentum contrast (MoCo) method in the pretraining phase to learn more general image representations to use for downstream tasks. We present three results. The first is deterioration prediction from a single image, where our model achieves an area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.742 for predicting an adverse event within 96 hours (compared to 0.703 with supervised pretraining) and an AUC of 0.765 for predicting oxygen requirements greater than 6 L a day at 24 hours (compared to 0.749 with supervised pretraining). We then propose a new transformer-based architecture that can process sequences of multiple images for prediction and show that this model can achieve an improved AUC of 0.786 for predicting an adverse event at 96 hours and an AUC of 0.848 for predicting mortalities at 96 hours. A small pilot clinical study suggested that the prediction accuracy of our model is comparable to that of experienced radiologists analyzing the same information.