Get our free extension to see links to code for papers anywhere online!Free add-on: code for papers everywhere!Free add-on: See code for papers anywhere!

Crystalline materials are a fundamental component in next-generation technologies, yet modeling their distribution presents unique computational challenges. Of the plausible arrangements of atoms in a periodic lattice only a vanishingly small percentage are thermodynamically stable, which is a key indicator of the materials that can be experimentally realized. Two fundamental tasks in this area are to (a) predict the stable crystal structure of a known composition of elements and (b) propose novel compositions along with their stable structures. We present FlowMM, a pair of generative models that achieve state-of-the-art performance on both tasks while being more efficient and more flexible than competing methods. We generalize Riemannian Flow Matching to suit the symmetries inherent to crystals: translation, rotation, permutation, and periodic boundary conditions. Our framework enables the freedom to choose the flow base distributions, drastically simplifying the problem of learning crystal structures compared with diffusion models. In addition to standard benchmarks, we validate FlowMM's generated structures with quantum chemistry calculations, demonstrating that it is about 3x more efficient, in terms of integration steps, at finding stable materials compared to previous open methods.

Via

We investigate the optimal transport problem between probability measures when the underlying cost function is understood to satisfy a least action principle, also known as a Lagrangian cost. These generalizations are useful when connecting observations from a physical system where the transport dynamics are influenced by the geometry of the system, such as obstacles (e.g., incorporating barrier functions in the Lagrangian), and allows practitioners to incorporate a priori knowledge of the underlying system such as non-Euclidean geometries (e.g., paths must be circular). Our contributions are of computational interest, where we demonstrate the ability to efficiently compute geodesics and amortize spline-based paths, which has not been done before, even in low dimensional problems. Unlike prior work, we also output the resulting Lagrangian optimal transport map without requiring an ODE solver. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our formulation on low-dimensional examples taken from prior work. The source code to reproduce our experiments is available at https://github.com/facebookresearch/lagrangian-ot.

Via

Schr\"odinger bridge (SB) has emerged as the go-to method for optimizing transportation plans in diffusion models. However, SB requires estimating the intractable forward score functions, inevitably resulting in the costly implicit training loss based on simulated trajectories. To improve the scalability while preserving efficient transportation plans, we leverage variational inference to linearize the forward score functions (variational scores) of SB and restore simulation-free properties in training backward scores. We propose the variational Schr\"odinger diffusion model (VSDM), where the forward process is a multivariate diffusion and the variational scores are adaptively optimized for efficient transport. Theoretically, we use stochastic approximation to prove the convergence of the variational scores and show the convergence of the adaptively generated samples based on the optimal variational scores. Empirically, we test the algorithm in simulated examples and observe that VSDM is efficient in generations of anisotropic shapes and yields straighter sample trajectories compared to the single-variate diffusion. We also verify the scalability of the algorithm in real-world data and achieve competitive unconditional generation performance in CIFAR10 and conditional generation in time series modeling. Notably, VSDM no longer depends on warm-up initializations and has become tuning-friendly in training large-scale experiments.

Via

This paper introduces Bespoke Non-Stationary (BNS) Solvers, a solver distillation approach to improve sample efficiency of Diffusion and Flow models. BNS solvers are based on a family of non-stationary solvers that provably subsumes existing numerical ODE solvers and consequently demonstrate considerable improvement in sample approximation (PSNR) over these baselines. Compared to model distillation, BNS solvers benefit from a tiny parameter space ($<$200 parameters), fast optimization (two orders of magnitude faster), maintain diversity of samples, and in contrast to previous solver distillation approaches nearly close the gap from standard distillation methods such as Progressive Distillation in the low-medium NFE regime. For example, BNS solver achieves 45 PSNR / 1.76 FID using 16 NFE in class-conditional ImageNet-64. We experimented with BNS solvers for conditional image generation, text-to-image generation, and text-2-audio generation showing significant improvement in sample approximation (PSNR) in all.

Via

Diffusion models have become the go-to method for large-scale generative models in real-world applications. These applications often involve data distributions confined within bounded domains, typically requiring ad-hoc thresholding techniques for boundary enforcement. Reflected diffusion models (Lou23) aim to enhance generalizability by generating the data distribution through a backward process governed by reflected Brownian motion. However, reflected diffusion models may not easily adapt to diverse domains without the derivation of proper diffeomorphic mappings and do not guarantee optimal transport properties. To overcome these limitations, we introduce the Reflected Schrodinger Bridge algorithm: an entropy-regularized optimal transport approach tailored for generating data within diverse bounded domains. We derive elegant reflected forward-backward stochastic differential equations with Neumann and Robin boundary conditions, extend divergence-based likelihood training to bounded domains, and explore natural connections to entropic optimal transport for the study of approximate linear convergence - a valuable insight for practical training. Our algorithm yields robust generative modeling in diverse domains, and its scalability is demonstrated in real-world constrained generative modeling through standard image benchmarks.

Via

Deep learning models are often deployed in downstream tasks that the training procedure may not be aware of. For example, models solely trained to achieve accurate predictions may struggle to perform well on downstream tasks because seemingly small prediction errors may incur drastic task errors. The standard end-to-end learning approach is to make the task loss differentiable or to introduce a differentiable surrogate that the model can be trained on. In these settings, the task loss needs to be carefully balanced with the prediction loss because they may have conflicting objectives. We propose take the task loss signal one level deeper than the parameters of the model and use it to learn the parameters of the loss function the model is trained on, which can be done by learning a metric in the prediction space. This approach does not alter the optimal prediction model itself, but rather changes the model learning to emphasize the information important for the downstream task. This enables us to achieve the best of both worlds: a prediction model trained in the original prediction space while also being valuable for the desired downstream task. We validate our approach through experiments conducted in two main settings: 1) decision-focused model learning scenarios involving portfolio optimization and budget allocation, and 2) reinforcement learning in noisy environments with distracting states. The source code to reproduce our experiments is available at https://github.com/facebookresearch/taskmet

Via

Classifier-free guidance is a key component for enhancing the performance of conditional generative models across diverse tasks. While it has previously demonstrated remarkable improvements for the sample quality, it has only been exclusively employed for diffusion models. In this paper, we integrate classifier-free guidance into Flow Matching (FM) models, an alternative simulation-free approach that trains Continuous Normalizing Flows (CNFs) based on regressing vector fields. We explore the usage of \emph{Guided Flows} for a variety of downstream applications. We show that Guided Flows significantly improves the sample quality in conditional image generation and zero-shot text-to-speech synthesis, boasting state-of-the-art performance. Notably, we are the first to apply flow models for plan generation in the offline reinforcement learning setting, showcasing a 10x speedup in computation compared to diffusion models while maintaining comparable performance.

Via

Stochastic optimal control, which has the goal of driving the behavior of noisy systems, is broadly applicable in science, engineering and artificial intelligence. Our work introduces Stochastic Optimal Control Matching (SOCM), a novel Iterative Diffusion Optimization (IDO) technique for stochastic optimal control that stems from the same philosophy as the conditional score matching loss for diffusion models. That is, the control is learned via a least squares problem by trying to fit a matching vector field. The training loss, which is closely connected to the cross-entropy loss, is optimized with respect to both the control function and a family of reparameterization matrices which appear in the matching vector field. The optimization with respect to the reparameterization matrices aims at minimizing the variance of the matching vector field. Experimentally, our algorithm achieves lower error than all the existing IDO techniques for stochastic optimal control for four different control settings. The key idea underlying SOCM is the path-wise reparameterization trick, a novel technique that is of independent interest, e.g., for generative modeling.

Via

Diffusion or flow-based models are powerful generative paradigms that are notoriously hard to sample as samples are defined as solutions to high-dimensional Ordinary or Stochastic Differential Equations (ODEs/SDEs) which require a large Number of Function Evaluations (NFE) to approximate well. Existing methods to alleviate the costly sampling process include model distillation and designing dedicated ODE solvers. However, distillation is costly to train and sometimes can deteriorate quality, while dedicated solvers still require relatively large NFE to produce high quality samples. In this paper we introduce "Bespoke solvers", a novel framework for constructing custom ODE solvers tailored to the ODE of a given pre-trained flow model. Our approach optimizes an order consistent and parameter-efficient solver (e.g., with 80 learnable parameters), is trained for roughly 1% of the GPU time required for training the pre-trained model, and significantly improves approximation and generation quality compared to dedicated solvers. For example, a Bespoke solver for a CIFAR10 model produces samples with Fr\'echet Inception Distance (FID) of 2.73 with 10 NFE, and gets to 1% of the Ground Truth (GT) FID (2.59) for this model with only 20 NFE. On the more challenging ImageNet-64$\times$64, Bespoke samples at 2.2 FID with 10 NFE, and gets within 2% of GT FID (1.71) with 20 NFE.

Via

Guan-Horng Liu, Yaron Lipman, Maximilian Nickel, Brian Karrer, Evangelos A. Theodorou, Ricky T. Q. Chen

Modern distribution matching algorithms for training diffusion or flow models directly prescribe the time evolution of the marginal distributions between two boundary distributions. In this work, we consider a generalized distribution matching setup, where these marginals are only implicitly described as a solution to some task-specific objective function. The problem setup, known as the Generalized Schr\"odinger Bridge (GSB), appears prevalently in many scientific areas both within and without machine learning. We propose Generalized Schr\"odinger Bridge Matching (GSBM), a new matching algorithm inspired by recent advances, generalizing them beyond kinetic energy minimization and to account for task-specific state costs. We show that such a generalization can be cast as solving conditional stochastic optimal control, for which efficient variational approximations can be used, and further debiased with the aid of path integral theory. Compared to prior methods for solving GSB problems, our GSBM algorithm always preserves a feasible transport map between the boundary distributions throughout training, thereby enabling stable convergence and significantly improved scalability. We empirically validate our claims on an extensive suite of experimental setups, including crowd navigation, opinion depolarization, LiDAR manifolds, and image domain transfer. Our work brings new algorithmic opportunities for training diffusion models enhanced with task-specific optimality structures.

Via