Lightweight design of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) requires co-design efforts in the model architectures and compression techniques. As a novel design paradigm that separates training and inference, a structural re-parameterized (SR) network such as the representative RepVGG revitalizes the simple VGG-like network with a high accuracy comparable to advanced and often more complicated networks. However, the merging process in SR networks introduces outliers into weights, making their distribution distinct from conventional networks and thus heightening difficulties in quantization. To address this, we propose an operator-level improvement for training called Outlier Aware Batch Normalization (OABN). Additionally, to meet the demands of limited bitwidths while upkeeping the inference accuracy, we develop a clustering-based non-uniform quantization framework for Quantization-Aware Training (QAT) named ClusterQAT. Integrating OABN with ClusterQAT, the quantized performance of RepVGG is largely enhanced, particularly when the bitwidth falls below 8.
Discrimination can occur when the underlying unbiased labels are overwritten by an agent with potential bias, resulting in biased datasets that unfairly harm specific groups and cause classifiers to inherit these biases. In this paper, we demonstrate that despite only having access to the biased labels, it is possible to eliminate bias by filtering the fairest instances within the framework of confident learning. In the context of confident learning, low self-confidence usually indicates potential label errors; however, this is not always the case. Instances, particularly those from underrepresented groups, might exhibit low confidence scores for reasons other than labeling errors. To address this limitation, our approach employs truncation of the confidence score and extends the confidence interval of the probabilistic threshold. Additionally, we incorporate with co-teaching paradigm for providing a more robust and reliable selection of fair instances and effectively mitigating the adverse effects of biased labels. Through extensive experimentation and evaluation of various datasets, we demonstrate the efficacy of our approach in promoting fairness and reducing the impact of label bias in machine learning models.
Event cameras are emerging imaging technology that offers advantages over conventional frame-based imaging sensors in dynamic range and sensing speed. Complementing the rich texture and color perception of traditional image frames, the hybrid camera system of event and frame-based cameras enables high-performance imaging. With the assistance of event cameras, high-quality image/video enhancement methods make it possible to break the limits of traditional frame-based cameras, especially exposure time, resolution, dynamic range, and frame rate limits. This paper focuses on five event-aided image and video enhancement tasks (i.e., event-based video reconstruction, event-aided high frame rate video reconstruction, image deblurring, image super-resolution, and high dynamic range image reconstruction), provides an analysis of the effects of different event properties, a real-captured and ground truth labeled benchmark dataset, a unified benchmarking of state-of-the-art methods, and an evaluation for two mainstream event simulators. In detail, this paper collects a real-captured evaluation dataset EventAid for five event-aided image/video enhancement tasks, by using "Event-RGB" multi-camera hybrid system, taking into account scene diversity and spatiotemporal synchronization. We further perform quantitative and visual comparisons for state-of-the-art algorithms, provide a controlled experiment to analyze the performance limit of event-aided image deblurring methods, and discuss open problems to inspire future research.
Conventional super-resolution (SR) schemes make heavy use of convolutional neural networks (CNNs), which involve intensive multiply-accumulate (MAC) operations, and require specialized hardware such as graphics processing units. This contradicts the regime of edge AI that often runs on devices strained by power, computing, and storage resources. Such a challenge has motivated a series of lookup table (LUT)-based SR schemes that employ simple LUT readout and largely elude CNN computation. Nonetheless, the multi-megabyte LUTs in existing methods still prohibit on-chip storage and necessitate off-chip memory transport. This work tackles this storage hurdle and innovates hundred-kilobyte LUT (HKLUT) models amenable to on-chip cache. Utilizing an asymmetric two-branch multistage network coupled with a suite of specialized kernel patterns, HKLUT demonstrates an uncompromising performance and superior hardware efficiency over existing LUT schemes.
Deep biasing for the Transducer can improve the recognition performance of rare words or contextual entities, which is essential in practical applications, especially for streaming Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR). However, deep biasing with large-scale rare words remains challenging, as the performance drops significantly when more distractors exist and there are words with similar grapheme sequences in the bias list. In this paper, we combine the phoneme and textual information of rare words in Transducers to distinguish words with similar pronunciation or spelling. Moreover, the introduction of training with text-only data containing more rare words benefits large-scale deep biasing. The experiments on the LibriSpeech corpus demonstrate that the proposed method achieves state-of-the-art performance on rare word error rate for different scales and levels of bias lists.
Reservoir computation models form a subclass of recurrent neural networks with fixed non-trainable input and dynamic coupling weights. Only the static readout from the state space (reservoir) is trainable, thus avoiding the known problems with propagation of gradient information backwards through time. Reservoir models have been successfully applied in a variety of tasks and were shown to be universal approximators of time-invariant fading memory dynamic filters under various settings. Simple cycle reservoirs (SCR) have been suggested as severely restricted reservoir architecture, with equal weight ring connectivity of the reservoir units and input-to-reservoir weights of binary nature with the same absolute value. Such architectures are well suited for hardware implementations without performance degradation in many practical tasks. In this contribution, we rigorously study the expressive power of SCR in the complex domain and show that they are capable of universal approximation of any unrestricted linear reservoir system (with continuous readout) and hence any time-invariant fading memory filter over uniformly bounded input streams.
Domain adaptation using text-only corpus is challenging in end-to-end(E2E) speech recognition. Adaptation by synthesizing audio from text through TTS is resource-consuming. We present a method to learn Unified Speech-Text Representation in Conformer Transducer(USTR-CT) to enable fast domain adaptation using the text-only corpus. Different from the previous textogram method, an extra text encoder is introduced in our work to learn text representation and is removed during inference, so there is no modification for online deployment. To improve the efficiency of adaptation, single-step and multi-step adaptations are also explored. The experiments on adapting LibriSpeech to SPGISpeech show the proposed method reduces the word error rate(WER) by relatively 44% on the target domain, which is better than those of TTS method and textogram method. Also, it is shown the proposed method can be combined with internal language model estimation(ILME) to further improve the performance.
To accelerate the inference of deep neural networks (DNNs), quantization with low-bitwidth numbers is actively researched. A prominent challenge is to quantize the DNN models into low-bitwidth numbers without significant accuracy degradation, especially at very low bitwidths (< 8 bits). This work targets an adaptive data representation with variable-length encoding called DyBit. DyBit can dynamically adjust the precision and range of separate bit-field to be adapted to the DNN weights/activations distribution. We also propose a hardware-aware quantization framework with a mixed-precision accelerator to trade-off the inference accuracy and speedup. Experimental results demonstrate that the inference accuracy via DyBit is 1.997% higher than the state-of-the-art at 4-bit quantization, and the proposed framework can achieve up to 8.1x speedup compared with the original model.
Task-agnostic cross-domain pre-training shows great potential in image-based Reinforcement Learning (RL) but poses a big challenge. In this paper, we propose CRPTpro, a Cross-domain self-supervised Random Pre-Training framework with prototypes for image-based RL. CRPTpro employs cross-domain random policy to easily and quickly sample diverse data from multiple domains, to improve pre-training efficiency. Moreover, prototypical representation learning with a novel intrinsic loss is proposed to pre-train an effective and generic encoder across different domains. Without finetuning, the cross-domain encoder can be implemented for challenging downstream visual-control RL tasks defined in different domains efficiently. Compared with prior arts like APT and Proto-RL, CRPTpro achieves better performance on cross-domain downstream RL tasks without extra training on exploration agents for expert data collection, greatly reducing the burden of pre-training. Experiments on DeepMind Control suite (DMControl) demonstrate that CRPTpro outperforms APT significantly on 11/12 cross-domain RL tasks with only 39% pre-training hours, becoming a state-of-the-art cross-domain pre-training method in both policy learning performance and pre-training efficiency. The complete code will be released at https://github.com/liuxin0824/CRPTpro.
The decoupled Graph Convolutional Network (GCN), a recent development of GCN that decouples the neighborhood aggregation and feature transformation in each convolutional layer, has shown promising performance for graph representation learning. Existing decoupled GCNs first utilize a simple neural network (e.g., MLP) to learn the hidden features of the nodes, then propagate the learned features on the graph with fixed steps to aggregate the information of multi-hop neighborhoods. Despite effectiveness, the aggregation operation, which requires the whole adjacency matrix as the input, is involved in the model training, causing high training cost that hinders its potential on larger graphs. On the other hand, due to the independence of node attributes as the input, the neural networks used in decoupled GCNs are very simple, and advanced techniques cannot be applied to the modeling. To this end, we further liberate the aggregation operation from the decoupled GCN and propose a new paradigm of GCN, termed Neighborhood Convolutional Network (NCN), that utilizes the neighborhood aggregation result as the input, followed by a special convolutional neural network tailored for extracting expressive node representations from the aggregation input. In this way, the model could inherit the merit of decoupled GCN for aggregating neighborhood information, at the same time, develop much more powerful feature learning modules. A training strategy called mask training is incorporated to further boost the model performance. Extensive results demonstrate the effectiveness of our model for the node classification task on diverse homophilic graphs and heterophilic graphs.
* 8 pages, 4 figures, 2 tables, submitted to a conference of 2023