We present an architecture and a training recipe that adapts pre-trained open-world image models to localization in videos. Understanding the open visual world (without being constrained by fixed label spaces) is crucial for many real-world vision tasks. Contrastive pre-training on large image-text datasets has recently led to significant improvements for image-level tasks. For more structured tasks involving object localization applying pre-trained models is more challenging. This is particularly true for video tasks, where task-specific data is limited. We show successful transfer of open-world models by building on the OWL-ViT open-vocabulary detection model and adapting it to video by adding a transformer decoder. The decoder propagates object representations recurrently through time by using the output tokens for one frame as the object queries for the next. Our model is end-to-end trainable on video data and enjoys improved temporal consistency compared to tracking-by-detection baselines, while retaining the open-world capabilities of the backbone detector. We evaluate our model on the challenging TAO-OW benchmark and demonstrate that open-world capabilities, learned from large-scale image-text pre-training, can be transferred successfully to open-world localization across diverse videos.
The ubiquitous and demonstrably suboptimal choice of resizing images to a fixed resolution before processing them with computer vision models has not yet been successfully challenged. However, models such as the Vision Transformer (ViT) offer flexible sequence-based modeling, and hence varying input sequence lengths. We take advantage of this with NaViT (Native Resolution ViT) which uses sequence packing during training to process inputs of arbitrary resolutions and aspect ratios. Alongside flexible model usage, we demonstrate improved training efficiency for large-scale supervised and contrastive image-text pretraining. NaViT can be efficiently transferred to standard tasks such as image and video classification, object detection, and semantic segmentation and leads to improved results on robustness and fairness benchmarks. At inference time, the input resolution flexibility can be used to smoothly navigate the test-time cost-performance trade-off. We believe that NaViT marks a departure from the standard, CNN-designed, input and modelling pipeline used by most computer vision models, and represents a promising direction for ViTs.
Open-vocabulary object detection has benefited greatly from pretrained vision-language models, but is still limited by the amount of available detection training data. While detection training data can be expanded by using Web image-text pairs as weak supervision, this has not been done at scales comparable to image-level pretraining. Here, we scale up detection data with self-training, which uses an existing detector to generate pseudo-box annotations on image-text pairs. Major challenges in scaling self-training are the choice of label space, pseudo-annotation filtering, and training efficiency. We present the OWLv2 model and OWL-ST self-training recipe, which address these challenges. OWLv2 surpasses the performance of previous state-of-the-art open-vocabulary detectors already at comparable training scales (~10M examples). However, with OWL-ST, we can scale to over 1B examples, yielding further large improvement: With an L/14 architecture, OWL-ST improves AP on LVIS rare classes, for which the model has seen no human box annotations, from 31.2% to 44.6% (43% relative improvement). OWL-ST unlocks Web-scale training for open-world localization, similar to what has been seen for image classification and language modelling.
The most performant spatio-temporal action localisation models use external person proposals and complex external memory banks. We propose a fully end-to-end, purely-transformer based model that directly ingests an input video, and outputs tubelets -- a sequence of bounding boxes and the action classes at each frame. Our flexible model can be trained with either sparse bounding-box supervision on individual frames, or full tubelet annotations. And in both cases, it predicts coherent tubelets as the output. Moreover, our end-to-end model requires no additional pre-processing in the form of proposals, or post-processing in terms of non-maximal suppression. We perform extensive ablation experiments, and significantly advance the state-of-the-art results on four different spatio-temporal action localisation benchmarks with both sparse keyframes and full tubelet annotations.
The scaling of Transformers has driven breakthrough capabilities for language models. At present, the largest large language models (LLMs) contain upwards of 100B parameters. Vision Transformers (ViT) have introduced the same architecture to image and video modelling, but these have not yet been successfully scaled to nearly the same degree; the largest dense ViT contains 4B parameters (Chen et al., 2022). We present a recipe for highly efficient and stable training of a 22B-parameter ViT (ViT-22B) and perform a wide variety of experiments on the resulting model. When evaluated on downstream tasks (often with a lightweight linear model on frozen features), ViT-22B demonstrates increasing performance with scale. We further observe other interesting benefits of scale, including an improved tradeoff between fairness and performance, state-of-the-art alignment to human visual perception in terms of shape/texture bias, and improved robustness. ViT-22B demonstrates the potential for "LLM-like" scaling in vision, and provides key steps towards getting there.
We present Imagen Video, a text-conditional video generation system based on a cascade of video diffusion models. Given a text prompt, Imagen Video generates high definition videos using a base video generation model and a sequence of interleaved spatial and temporal video super-resolution models. We describe how we scale up the system as a high definition text-to-video model including design decisions such as the choice of fully-convolutional temporal and spatial super-resolution models at certain resolutions, and the choice of the v-parameterization of diffusion models. In addition, we confirm and transfer findings from previous work on diffusion-based image generation to the video generation setting. Finally, we apply progressive distillation to our video models with classifier-free guidance for fast, high quality sampling. We find Imagen Video not only capable of generating videos of high fidelity, but also having a high degree of controllability and world knowledge, including the ability to generate diverse videos and text animations in various artistic styles and with 3D object understanding. See https://imagen.research.google/video/ for samples.
Transfer learning is the predominant paradigm for training deep networks on small target datasets. Models are typically pretrained on large ``upstream'' datasets for classification, as such labels are easy to collect, and then finetuned on ``downstream'' tasks such as action localisation, which are smaller due to their finer-grained annotations. In this paper, we question this approach, and propose co-finetuning -- simultaneously training a single model on multiple ``upstream'' and ``downstream'' tasks. We demonstrate that co-finetuning outperforms traditional transfer learning when using the same total amount of data, and also show how we can easily extend our approach to multiple ``upstream'' datasets to further improve performance. In particular, co-finetuning significantly improves the performance on rare classes in our downstream task, as it has a regularising effect, and enables the network to learn feature representations that transfer between different datasets. Finally, we observe how co-finetuning with public, video classification datasets, we are able to achieve state-of-the-art results for spatio-temporal action localisation on the challenging AVA and AVA-Kinetics datasets, outperforming recent works which develop intricate models.
Combining simple architectures with large-scale pre-training has led to massive improvements in image classification. For object detection, pre-training and scaling approaches are less well established, especially in the long-tailed and open-vocabulary setting, where training data is relatively scarce. In this paper, we propose a strong recipe for transferring image-text models to open-vocabulary object detection. We use a standard Vision Transformer architecture with minimal modifications, contrastive image-text pre-training, and end-to-end detection fine-tuning. Our analysis of the scaling properties of this setup shows that increasing image-level pre-training and model size yield consistent improvements on the downstream detection task. We provide the adaptation strategies and regularizations needed to attain very strong performance on zero-shot text-conditioned and one-shot image-conditioned object detection. Code and models are available on GitHub.
Generating temporally coherent high fidelity video is an important milestone in generative modeling research. We make progress towards this milestone by proposing a diffusion model for video generation that shows very promising initial results. Our model is a natural extension of the standard image diffusion architecture, and it enables jointly training from image and video data, which we find to reduce the variance of minibatch gradients and speed up optimization. To generate long and higher resolution videos we introduce a new conditional sampling technique for spatial and temporal video extension that performs better than previously proposed methods. We present the first results on a large text-conditioned video generation task, as well as state-of-the-art results on an established unconditional video generation benchmark. Supplementary material is available at https://video-diffusion.github.io/
User interface modeling is inherently multimodal, which involves several distinct types of data: images, structures and language. The tasks are also diverse, including object detection, language generation and grounding. In this paper, we present VUT, a Versatile UI Transformer that takes multimodal input and simultaneously accomplishes 5 distinct tasks with the same model. Our model consists of a multimodal Transformer encoder that jointly encodes UI images and structures, and performs UI object detection when the UI structures are absent in the input. Our model also consists of an auto-regressive Transformer model that encodes the language input and decodes output, for both question-answering and command grounding with respect to the UI. Our experiments show that for most of the tasks, when trained jointly for multi-tasks, VUT substantially reduces the number of models and footprints needed for performing multiple tasks, while achieving accuracy exceeding or on par with baseline models trained for each individual task.