We present an architecture and a training recipe that adapts pre-trained open-world image models to localization in videos. Understanding the open visual world (without being constrained by fixed label spaces) is crucial for many real-world vision tasks. Contrastive pre-training on large image-text datasets has recently led to significant improvements for image-level tasks. For more structured tasks involving object localization applying pre-trained models is more challenging. This is particularly true for video tasks, where task-specific data is limited. We show successful transfer of open-world models by building on the OWL-ViT open-vocabulary detection model and adapting it to video by adding a transformer decoder. The decoder propagates object representations recurrently through time by using the output tokens for one frame as the object queries for the next. Our model is end-to-end trainable on video data and enjoys improved temporal consistency compared to tracking-by-detection baselines, while retaining the open-world capabilities of the backbone detector. We evaluate our model on the challenging TAO-OW benchmark and demonstrate that open-world capabilities, learned from large-scale image-text pre-training, can be transferred successfully to open-world localization across diverse videos.
We present the training recipe and results of scaling up PaLI-X, a multilingual vision and language model, both in terms of size of the components and the breadth of its training task mixture. Our model achieves new levels of performance on a wide-range of varied and complex tasks, including multiple image-based captioning and question-answering tasks, image-based document understanding and few-shot (in-context) learning, as well as object detection, video question answering, and video captioning. PaLI-X advances the state-of-the-art on most vision-and-language benchmarks considered (25+ of them). Finally, we observe emerging capabilities, such as complex counting and multilingual object detection, tasks that are not explicitly in the training mix.
The scaling of Transformers has driven breakthrough capabilities for language models. At present, the largest large language models (LLMs) contain upwards of 100B parameters. Vision Transformers (ViT) have introduced the same architecture to image and video modelling, but these have not yet been successfully scaled to nearly the same degree; the largest dense ViT contains 4B parameters (Chen et al., 2022). We present a recipe for highly efficient and stable training of a 22B-parameter ViT (ViT-22B) and perform a wide variety of experiments on the resulting model. When evaluated on downstream tasks (often with a lightweight linear model on frozen features), ViT-22B demonstrates increasing performance with scale. We further observe other interesting benefits of scale, including an improved tradeoff between fairness and performance, state-of-the-art alignment to human visual perception in terms of shape/texture bias, and improved robustness. ViT-22B demonstrates the potential for "LLM-like" scaling in vision, and provides key steps towards getting there.
This paper presents contrastive-tuning, a simple method employing contrastive training to align image and text models while still taking advantage of their pre-training. In our empirical study we find that locked pre-trained image models with unlocked text models work best. We call this instance of contrastive-tuning "Locked-image Text tuning" (LiT-tuning), which just teaches a text model to read out good representations from a pre-trained image model for new tasks. A LiT-tuned model gains the capability of zero-shot transfer to new vision tasks, such as image classification or retrieval. The proposed LiT-tuning is widely applicable; it works reliably with multiple pre-training methods (supervised and unsupervised) and across diverse architectures (ResNet, Vision Transformers and MLP-Mixer) using three different image-text datasets. With the transformer-based pre-trained ViT-g/14 model, the LiT-tuned model achieves 84.5% zero-shot transfer accuracy on the ImageNet test set, and 81.1% on the challenging out-of-distribution ObjectNet test set.
Recent results suggest that reinitializing a subset of the parameters of a neural network during training can improve generalization, particularly for small training sets. We study the impact of different reinitialization methods in several convolutional architectures across 12 benchmark image classification datasets, analyzing their potential gains and highlighting limitations. We also introduce a new layerwise reinitialization algorithm that outperforms previous methods and suggest explanations of the observed improved generalization. First, we show that layerwise reinitialization increases the margin on the training examples without increasing the norm of the weights, hence leading to an improvement in margin-based generalization bounds for neural networks. Second, we demonstrate that it settles in flatter local minima of the loss surface. Third, it encourages learning general rules and discourages memorization by placing emphasis on the lower layers of the neural network. Our takeaway message is that the accuracy of convolutional neural networks can be improved for small datasets using bottom-up layerwise reinitialization, where the number of reinitialized layers may vary depending on the available compute budget.
Identifying the locations and footprints of buildings is vital for many practical and scientific purposes. Such information can be particularly useful in developing regions where alternative data sources may be scarce. In this work, we describe a model training pipeline for detecting buildings across the entire continent of Africa, using 50 cm satellite imagery. Starting with the U-Net model, widely used in satellite image analysis, we study variations in architecture, loss functions, regularization, pre-training, self-training and post-processing that increase instance segmentation performance. Experiments were carried out using a dataset of 100k satellite images across Africa containing 1.75M manually labelled building instances, and further datasets for pre-training and self-training. We report novel methods for improving performance of building detection with this type of model, including the use of mixup (mAP +0.12) and self-training with soft KL loss (mAP +0.06). The resulting pipeline obtains good results even on a wide variety of challenging rural and urban contexts, and was used to create the Open Buildings dataset of 516M Africa-wide detected footprints.
We introduce a generalization to the lottery ticket hypothesis in which the notion of "sparsity" is relaxed by choosing an arbitrary basis in the space of parameters. We present evidence that the original results reported for the canonical basis continue to hold in this broader setting. We describe how structured pruning methods, including pruning units or factorizing fully-connected layers into products of low-rank matrices, can be cast as particular instances of this "generalized" lottery ticket hypothesis. The investigations reported here are preliminary and are provided to encourage further research along this direction.
Sparsely-gated Mixture of Experts networks (MoEs) have demonstrated excellent scalability in Natural Language Processing. In Computer Vision, however, almost all performant networks are "dense", that is, every input is processed by every parameter. We present a Vision MoE (V-MoE), a sparse version of the Vision Transformer, that is scalable and competitive with the largest dense networks. When applied to image recognition, V-MoE matches the performance of state-of-the-art networks, while requiring as little as half of the compute at inference time. Further, we propose an extension to the routing algorithm that can prioritize subsets of each input across the entire batch, leading to adaptive per-image compute. This allows V-MoE to trade-off performance and compute smoothly at test-time. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of V-MoE to scale vision models, and train a 15B parameter model that attains 90.35% on ImageNet.