Programming languages themselves have a limited number of reserved keywords and character based tokens that define the language specification. However, programmers have a rich use of natural language within their code through comments, text literals and naming entities. The programmer defined names that can be found in source code are a rich source of information to build a high level understanding of the project. The goal of this paper is to apply topic modeling to names used in over 13.6 million repositories and perceive the inferred topics. One of the problems in such a study is the occurrence of duplicate repositories not officially marked as forks (obscure forks). We show how to address it using the same identifiers which are extracted for topic modeling. We open with a discussion on naming in source code, we then elaborate on our approach to remove exact duplicate and fuzzy duplicate repositories using Locality Sensitive Hashing on the bag-of-words model and then discuss our work on topic modeling; and finally present the results from our data analysis together with open-access to the source code, tools and datasets.
Existing topic modeling and text segmentation methodologies generally require large datasets for training, limiting their capabilities when only small collections of text are available. In this work, we reexamine the inter-related problems of "topic identification" and "text segmentation" for sparse document learning, when there is a single new text of interest. In developing a methodology to handle single documents, we face two major challenges. First is sparse information: with access to only one document, we cannot train traditional topic models or deep learning algorithms. Second is significant noise: a considerable portion of words in any single document will produce only noise and not help discern topics or segments. To tackle these issues, we design an unsupervised, computationally efficient methodology called BATS: Biclustering Approach to Topic modeling and Segmentation. BATS leverages three key ideas to simultaneously identify topics and segment text: (i) a new mechanism that uses word order information to reduce sample complexity, (ii) a statistically sound graph-based biclustering technique that identifies latent structures of words and sentences, and (iii) a collection of effective heuristics that remove noise words and award important words to further improve performance. Experiments on four datasets show that our approach outperforms several state-of-the-art baselines when considering topic coherence, topic diversity, segmentation, and runtime comparison metrics.
The last decade has seen great progress in both dynamic network modeling and topic modeling. This paper draws upon both areas to create a Bayesian method that allows topic discovery to inform the latent network model and the network structure to facilitate topic identification. We apply this method to the 467 top political blogs of 2012. Our results find complex community structure within this set of blogs, where community membership depends strongly upon the set of topics in which the blogger is interested.
Many data sets contain rich information about objects, as well as pairwise relations between them. For instance, in networks of websites, scientific papers, and other documents, each node has content consisting of a collection of words, as well as hyperlinks or citations to other nodes. In order to perform inference on such data sets, and make predictions and recommendations, it is useful to have models that are able to capture the processes which generate the text at each node and the links between them. In this paper, we combine classic ideas in topic modeling with a variant of the mixed-membership block model recently developed in the statistical physics community. The resulting model has the advantage that its parameters, including the mixture of topics of each document and the resulting overlapping communities, can be inferred with a simple and scalable expectation-maximization algorithm. We test our model on three data sets, performing unsupervised topic classification and link prediction. For both tasks, our model outperforms several existing state-of-the-art methods, achieving higher accuracy with significantly less computation, analyzing a data set with 1.3 million words and 44 thousand links in a few minutes.
While most topic modeling algorithms model text corpora with unigrams, human interpretation often relies on inherent grouping of terms into phrases. As such, we consider the problem of discovering topical phrases of mixed lengths. Existing work either performs post processing to the inference results of unigram-based topic models, or utilizes complex n-gram-discovery topic models. These methods generally produce low-quality topical phrases or suffer from poor scalability on even moderately-sized datasets. We propose a different approach that is both computationally efficient and effective. Our solution combines a novel phrase mining framework to segment a document into single and multi-word phrases, and a new topic model that operates on the induced document partition. Our approach discovers high quality topical phrases with negligible extra cost to the bag-of-words topic model in a variety of datasets including research publication titles, abstracts, reviews, and news articles.
Topic models provide a useful method for dimensionality reduction and exploratory data analysis in large text corpora. Most approaches to topic model inference have been based on a maximum likelihood objective. Efficient algorithms exist that approximate this objective, but they have no provable guarantees. Recently, algorithms have been introduced that provide provable bounds, but these algorithms are not practical because they are inefficient and not robust to violations of model assumptions. In this paper we present an algorithm for topic model inference that is both provable and practical. The algorithm produces results comparable to the best MCMC implementations while running orders of magnitude faster.
We present in this paper our approach for modeling inter-topic preferences of Twitter users: for example, those who agree with the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) also agree with free trade. This kind of knowledge is useful not only for stance detection across multiple topics but also for various real-world applications including public opinion surveys, electoral predictions, electoral campaigns, and online debates. In order to extract users' preferences on Twitter, we design linguistic patterns in which people agree and disagree about specific topics (e.g., "A is completely wrong"). By applying these linguistic patterns to a collection of tweets, we extract statements agreeing and disagreeing with various topics. Inspired by previous work on item recommendation, we formalize the task of modeling inter-topic preferences as matrix factorization: representing users' preferences as a user-topic matrix and mapping both users and topics onto a latent feature space that abstracts the preferences. Our experimental results demonstrate both that our proposed approach is useful in predicting missing preferences of users and that the latent vector representations of topics successfully encode inter-topic preferences.
This paper presents an unsupervised framework for jointly modeling topic content and discourse behavior in microblog conversations. Concretely, we propose a neural model to discover word clusters indicating what a conversation concerns (i.e., topics) and those reflecting how participants voice their opinions (i.e., discourse). Extensive experiments show that our model can yield both coherent topics and meaningful discourse behavior. Further study shows that our topic and discourse representations can benefit the classification of microblog messages, especially when they are jointly trained with the classifier.
Multiple adverse health conditions co-occurring in a patient are typically associated with poor prognosis and increased office or hospital visits. Developing methods to identify patterns of co-occurring conditions can assist in diagnosis. Thus identifying patterns of associations among co-occurring conditions is of growing interest. In this paper, we report preliminary results from a data-driven study, in which we apply a machine learning method, namely, topic modeling, to electronic medical records, aiming to identify patterns of associated conditions. Specifically, we use the well established latent dirichlet allocation, a method based on the idea that documents can be modeled as a mixture of latent topics, where each topic is a distribution over words. In our study, we adapt the LDA model to identify latent topics in patients' EMRs. We evaluate the performance of our method both qualitatively, and show that the obtained topics indeed align well with distinct medical phenomena characterized by co-occurring conditions.
Human conversations naturally evolve around different topics and fluently move between them. In research on dialog systems, the ability to actively and smoothly transition to new topics is often ignored. In this paper we introduce TIAGE, a new topic-shift aware dialog benchmark constructed utilizing human annotations on topic shifts. Based on TIAGE, we introduce three tasks to investigate different scenarios of topic-shift modeling in dialog settings: topic-shift detection, topic-shift triggered response generation and topic-aware dialog generation. Experiments on these tasks show that the topic-shift signals in TIAGE are useful for topic-shift response generation. On the other hand, dialog systems still struggle to decide when to change topic. This indicates further research is needed in topic-shift aware dialog modeling.