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"Text Classification": models, code, and papers

Sewer-ML: A Multi-Label Sewer Defect Classification Dataset and Benchmark

Mar 19, 2021
Joakim Bruslund Haurum, Thomas B. Moeslund

Perhaps surprisingly sewerage infrastructure is one of the most costly infrastructures in modern society. Sewer pipes are manually inspected to determine whether the pipes are defective. However, this process is limited by the number of qualified inspectors and the time it takes to inspect a pipe. Automatization of this process is therefore of high interest. So far, the success of computer vision approaches for sewer defect classification has been limited when compared to the success in other fields mainly due to the lack of public datasets. To this end, in this work we present a large novel and publicly available multi-label classification dataset for image-based sewer defect classification called Sewer-ML. The Sewer-ML dataset consists of 1.3 million images annotated by professional sewer inspectors from three different utility companies across nine years. Together with the dataset, we also present a benchmark algorithm and a novel metric for assessing performance. The benchmark algorithm is a result of evaluating 12 state-of-the-art algorithms, six from the sewer defect classification domain and six from the multi-label classification domain, and combining the best performing algorithms. The novel metric is a class-importance weighted F2 score, $\text{F}2_{\text{CIW}}$, reflecting the economic impact of each class, used together with the normal pipe F1 score, $\text{F}1_{\text{Normal}}$. The benchmark algorithm achieves an $\text{F}2_{\text{CIW}}$ score of 55.11% and $\text{F}1_{\text{Normal}}$ score of 90.94%, leaving ample room for improvement on the Sewer-ML dataset. The code, models, and dataset are available at the project page

* CVPR 2021. Project webpage: 
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Text Classification Algorithms: A Survey

Apr 25, 2019
Kamran Kowsari, Kiana Jafari Meimandi, Mojtaba Heidarysafa, Sanjana Mendu, Laura E. Barnes, Donald E. Brown

In recent years, there has been an exponential growth in the number of complex documents and texts that require a deeper understanding of machine learning methods to be able to accurately classify texts in many applications. Many machine learning approaches have achieved surpassing results in natural language processing. The success of these learning algorithms relies on their capacity to understand complex models and non-linear relationships within data. However, finding suitable structures, architectures, and techniques for text classification is a challenge for researchers. In this paper, a brief overview of text classification algorithms is discussed. This overview covers different text feature extractions, dimensionality reduction methods, existing algorithms and techniques, and evaluations methods. Finally, the limitations of each technique and their application in the real-world problem are discussed.

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Orthogonal Matching Pursuit for Text Classification

Oct 09, 2018
Konstantinos Skianis, Nikolaos Tziortziotis, Michalis Vazirgiannis

In text classification, the problem of overfitting arises due to the high dimensionality, making regularization essential. Although classic regularizers provide sparsity, they fail to return highly accurate models. On the contrary, state-of-the-art group-lasso regularizers provide better results at the expense of low sparsity. In this paper, we apply a greedy variable selection algorithm, called Orthogonal Matching Pursuit, for the text classification task. We also extend standard group OMP by introducing overlapping Group OMP to handle overlapping groups of features. Empirical analysis verifies that both OMP and overlapping GOMP constitute powerful regularizers, able to produce effective and very sparse models. Code and data are available online: .

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Deep Learning Based Text Classification: A Comprehensive Review

Apr 06, 2020
Shervin Minaee, Nal Kalchbrenner, Erik Cambria, Narjes Nikzad, Meysam Chenaghlu, Jianfeng Gao

Deep learning based models have surpassed classical machine learning based approaches in various text classification tasks, including sentiment analysis, news categorization, question answering, and natural language inference. In this work, we provide a detailed review of more than 150 deep learning based models for text classification developed in recent years, and discuss their technical contributions, similarities, and strengths. We also provide a summary of more than 40 popular datasets widely used for text classification. Finally, we provide a quantitative analysis of the performance of different deep learning models on popular benchmarks, and discuss future research directions.

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Text classification with pixel embedding

Nov 14, 2019
Bin Liu, Guosheng Yin, Wenbin Du

We propose a novel framework to understand the text by converting sentences or articles into video-like 3-dimensional tensors. Each frame, corresponding to a slice of the tensor, is a word image that is rendered by the word's shape. The length of the tensor equals to the number of words in the sentence or article. The proposed transformation from the text to a 3-dimensional tensor makes it very convenient to implement an $n$-gram model with convolutional neural networks for text analysis. Concretely, we impose a 3-dimensional convolutional kernel on the 3-dimensional text tensor. The first two dimensions of the convolutional kernel size equal the size of the word image and the last dimension of the kernel size is $n$. That is, every time when we slide the 3-dimensional kernel over a word sequence, the convolution covers $n$ word images and outputs a scalar. By iterating this process continuously for each $n$-gram along with the sentence or article with multiple kernels, we obtain a 2-dimensional feature map. A subsequent 1-dimensional max-over-time pooling is applied to this feature map, and three fully-connected layers are used for conducting text classification finally. Experiments of several text classification datasets demonstrate surprisingly superior performances using the proposed model in comparison with existing methods.

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BAE: BERT-based Adversarial Examples for Text Classification

Apr 04, 2020
Siddhant Garg, Goutham Ramakrishnan

Modern text classification models are susceptible to adversarial examples, perturbed versions of the original text indiscernible by humans but which get misclassified by the model. We present BAE, a powerful black box attack for generating grammatically correct and semantically coherent adversarial examples. BAE replaces and inserts tokens in the original text by masking a portion of the text and leveraging a language model to generate alternatives for the masked tokens. Compared to prior work, we show that BAE performs a stronger attack on three widely used models for seven text classification datasets.

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N15News: A New Dataset for Multimodal News Classification

Aug 30, 2021
Zhen Wang, Xu Shan, Jie Yang

Current news datasets merely focus on text features on the news and rarely leverage the feature of images, excluding numerous essential features for news classification. In this paper, we propose a new dataset, N15News, which is generated from New York Times with 15 categories and contains both text and image information in each news. We design a novel multitask multimodal network with different fusion methods, and experiments show multimodal news classification performs better than text-only news classification. Depending on the length of the text, the classification accuracy can be increased by up to 5.8%. Our research reveals the relationship between the performance of a multimodal classifier and its sub-classifiers, and also the possible improvements when applying multimodal in news classification. N15News is shown to have great potential to prompt the multimodal news studies.

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Ad Text Classification with Transformer-Based Natural Language Processing Methods

Jun 23, 2021
Umut Özdil, Büşra Arslan, D. Emre Taşar, Gökçe Polat, Şükrü Ozan

In this study, a natural language processing-based (NLP-based) method is proposed for the sector-wise automatic classification of ad texts created on online advertising platforms. Our data set consists of approximately 21,000 labeled advertising texts from 12 different sectors. In the study, the Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) model, which is a transformer-based language model that is recently used in fields such as text classification in the natural language processing literature, was used. The classification efficiencies obtained using a pre-trained BERT model for the Turkish language are shown in detail.

* 6 pages, in Turkish language, 4 figures, 3 tables 
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