Multimodal sentiment analysis aims to recognize people's attitudes from multiple communication channels such as verbal content (i.e., text), voice, and facial expressions. It has become a vibrant and important research topic in natural language processing. Much research focuses on modeling the complex intra- and inter-modal interactions between different communication channels. However, current multimodal models with strong performance are often deep-learning-based techniques and work like black boxes. It is not clear how models utilize multimodal information for sentiment predictions. Despite recent advances in techniques for enhancing the explainability of machine learning models, they often target unimodal scenarios (e.g., images, sentences), and little research has been done on explaining multimodal models. In this paper, we present an interactive visual analytics system, M2Lens, to visualize and explain multimodal models for sentiment analysis. M2Lens provides explanations on intra- and inter-modal interactions at the global, subset, and local levels. Specifically, it summarizes the influence of three typical interaction types (i.e., dominance, complement, and conflict) on the model predictions. Moreover, M2Lens identifies frequent and influential multimodal features and supports the multi-faceted exploration of model behaviors from language, acoustic, and visual modalities. Through two case studies and expert interviews, we demonstrate our system can help users gain deep insights into the multimodal models for sentiment analysis.
Domain adaptation for sentiment analysis is challenging due to the fact that supervised classifiers are very sensitive to changes in domain. The two most prominent approaches to this problem are structural correspondence learning and autoencoders. However, they either require long training times or suffer greatly on highly divergent domains. Inspired by recent advances in cross-lingual sentiment analysis, we provide a novel perspective and cast the domain adaptation problem as an embedding projection task. Our model takes as input two mono-domain embedding spaces and learns to project them to a bi-domain space, which is jointly optimized to (1) project across domains and to (2) predict sentiment. We perform domain adaptation experiments on 20 source-target domain pairs for sentiment classification and report novel state-of-the-art results on 11 domain pairs, including the Amazon domain adaptation datasets and SemEval 2013 and 2016 datasets. Our analysis shows that our model performs comparably to state-of-the-art approaches on domains that are similar, while performing significantly better on highly divergent domains. Our code is available at https://github.com/jbarnesspain/domain_blse
Question-answering plays an important role in e-commerce as it allows potential customers to actively seek crucial information about products or services to help their purchase decision making. Inspired by the recent success of machine reading comprehension (MRC) on formal documents, this paper explores the potential of turning customer reviews into a large source of knowledge that can be exploited to answer user questions.~We call this problem Review Reading Comprehension (RRC). To the best of our knowledge, no existing work has been done on RRC. In this work, we first build an RRC dataset called ReviewRC based on a popular benchmark for aspect-based sentiment analysis. Since ReviewRC has limited training examples for RRC (and also for aspect-based sentiment analysis), we then explore a novel post-training approach on the popular language model BERT to enhance the performance of fine-tuning of BERT for RRC. To show the generality of the approach, the proposed post-training is also applied to some other review-based tasks such as aspect extraction and aspect sentiment classification in aspect-based sentiment analysis. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed post-training is highly effective. The datasets and code are available at https://www.cs.uic.edu/~hxu/.
Social media is an appropriate source for analyzing public attitudes towards the COVID-19 vaccine and various brands. Nevertheless, there are few relevant studies. In the research, we collected tweet posts by the UK and US residents from the Twitter API during the pandemic and designed experiments to answer three main questions concerning vaccination. To get the dominant sentiment of the civics, we performed sentiment analysis by VADER and proposed a new method that can count the individual's influence. This allows us to go a step further in sentiment analysis and explain some of the fluctuations in the data changing. The results indicated that celebrities could lead the opinion shift on social media in vaccination progress. Moreover, at the peak, nearly 40\% of the population in both countries have a negative attitude towards COVID-19 vaccines. Besides, we investigated how people's opinions toward different vaccine brands are. We found that the Pfizer vaccine enjoys the most popular among people. By applying the sentiment analysis tool, we discovered most people hold positive views toward the COVID-19 vaccine manufactured by most brands. In the end, we carried out topic modelling by using the LDA model. We found residents in the two countries are willing to share their views and feelings concerning the vaccine. Several death cases have occurred after vaccination. Due to these negative events, US residents are more worried about the side effects and safety of the vaccine.
Social media is increasingly used by humans to express their feelings and opinions in the form of short text messages. Detecting sentiments in the text has a wide range of applications including identifying anxiety or depression of individuals and measuring well-being or mood of a community. Sentiments can be expressed in many ways that can be seen such as facial expression and gestures, speech and by written text. Sentiment Analysis in text documents is essentially a content-based classification problem involving concepts from the domains of Natural Language Processing as well as Machine Learning. In this paper, sentiment recognition based on textual data and the techniques used in sentiment analysis are discussed.
Social media have been widely exploited to detect and gather relevant information about opinions and events. However, the relevance of the information is very subjective and rather depends on the application and the end-users. In this article, we tackle a specific facet of social media data processing, namely the sentiment analysis of disaster-related images by considering people's opinions, attitudes, feelings and emotions. We analyze how visual sentiment analysis can improve the results for the end-users/beneficiaries in terms of mining information from social media. We also identify the challenges and related applications, which could help defining a benchmark for future research efforts in visual sentiment analysis.
Sentiment analysis of Twitter data is performed. The researcher has made the following contributions via this paper: (1) an innovative method for deriving sentiment score dictionaries using an existing sentiment dictionary as seed words is explored, and (2) an analysis of clustered tweet sentiment scores based on tweet length is performed.
A novel social networks sentiment analysis model is proposed based on Twitter sentiment score (TSS) for real-time prediction of the future stock market price FTSE 100, as compared with conventional econometric models of investor sentiment based on closed-end fund discount (CEFD). The proposed TSS model features a new baseline correlation approach, which not only exhibits a decent prediction accuracy, but also reduces the computation burden and enables a fast decision making without the knowledge of historical data. Polynomial regression, classification modelling and lexicon-based sentiment analysis are performed using R. The obtained TSS predicts the future stock market trend in advance by 15 time samples (30 working hours) with an accuracy of 67.22% using the proposed baseline criterion without referring to historical TSS or market data. Specifically, TSS's prediction performance of an upward market is found far better than that of a downward market. Under the logistic regression and linear discriminant analysis, the accuracy of TSS in predicting the upward trend of the future market achieves 97.87%.