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"Object Detection": models, code, and papers

A Survey on Object Detection in Optical Remote Sensing Images

Mar 23, 2016
Gong Cheng, Junwei Han

Object detection in optical remote sensing images, being a fundamental but challenging problem in the field of aerial and satellite image analysis, plays an important role for a wide range of applications and is receiving significant attention in recent years. While enormous methods exist, a deep review of the literature concerning generic object detection is still lacking. This paper aims to provide a review of the recent progress in this field. Different from several previously published surveys that focus on a specific object class such as building and road, we concentrate on more generic object categories including, but are not limited to, road, building, tree, vehicle, ship, airport, urban-area. Covering about 270 publications we survey 1) template matching-based object detection methods, 2) knowledge-based object detection methods, 3) object-based image analysis (OBIA)-based object detection methods, 4) machine learning-based object detection methods, and 5) five publicly available datasets and three standard evaluation metrics. We also discuss the challenges of current studies and propose two promising research directions, namely deep learning-based feature representation and weakly supervised learning-based geospatial object detection. It is our hope that this survey will be beneficial for the researchers to have better understanding of this research field.

* ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 117: 11-28, 2016 
* This manuscript is the accepted version for ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 
  
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Depth Confidence-aware Camouflaged Object Detection

Jun 24, 2021
Jing Zhang, Yunqiu Lv, Mochu Xiang, Aixuan Li, Yuchao Dai, Yiran Zhong

Camouflaged object detection (COD) aims to segment camouflaged objects hiding in the environment, which is challenging due to the similar appearance of camouflaged objects and their surroundings. Research in biology suggests that depth can provide useful object localization cues for camouflaged object discovery, as all the animals have 3D perception ability. However, the depth information has not been exploited for camouflaged object detection. To explore the contribution of depth for camouflage detection, we present a depth-guided camouflaged object detection network with pre-computed depth maps from existing monocular depth estimation methods. Due to the domain gap between the depth estimation dataset and our camouflaged object detection dataset, the generated depth may not be accurate enough to be directly used in our framework. We then introduce a depth quality assessment module to evaluate the quality of depth based on the model prediction from both RGB COD branch and RGB-D COD branch. During training, only high-quality depth is used to update the modal interaction module for multi-modal learning. During testing, our depth quality assessment module can effectively determine the contribution of depth and select the RGB branch or RGB-D branch for camouflage prediction. Extensive experiments on various camouflaged object detection datasets prove the effectiveness of our solution in exploring the depth information for camouflaged object detection. Our code and data is publicly available at: \url{https://github.com/JingZhang617/RGBD-COD}.

* 10 pages main content + 3 pages reference. The first work in RGB-D Camouflaged object detection (COD) 
  
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Scalable Object Detection for Stylized Objects

Nov 29, 2017
Aayush Garg, Thilo Will, William Darling, Willi Richert, Clemens Marschner

Following recent breakthroughs in convolutional neural networks and monolithic model architectures, state-of-the-art object detection models can reliably and accurately scale into the realm of up to thousands of classes. Things quickly break down, however, when scaling into the tens of thousands, or, eventually, to millions or billions of unique objects. Further, bounding box-trained end-to-end models require extensive training data. Even though - with some tricks using hierarchies - one can sometimes scale up to thousands of classes, the labor requirements for clean image annotations quickly get out of control. In this paper, we present a two-layer object detection method for brand logos and other stylized objects for which prototypical images exist. It can scale to large numbers of unique classes. Our first layer is a CNN from the Single Shot Multibox Detector family of models that learns to propose regions where some stylized object is likely to appear. The contents of a proposed bounding box is then run against an image index that is targeted for the retrieval task at hand. The proposed architecture scales to a large number of object classes, allows to continously add new classes without retraining, and exhibits state-of-the-art quality on a stylized object detection task such as logo recognition.

* 9 pages, 7 figures 
  
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Robust Object Detection under Occlusion with Context-Aware CompositionalNets

May 30, 2020
Angtian Wang, Yihong Sun, Adam Kortylewski, Alan Yuille

Detecting partially occluded objects is a difficult task. Our experimental results show that deep learning approaches, such as Faster R-CNN, are not robust at object detection under occlusion. Compositional convolutional neural networks (CompositionalNets) have been shown to be robust at classifying occluded objects by explicitly representing the object as a composition of parts. In this work, we propose to overcome two limitations of CompositionalNets which will enable them to detect partially occluded objects: 1) CompositionalNets, as well as other DCNN architectures, do not explicitly separate the representation of the context from the object itself. Under strong object occlusion, the influence of the context is amplified which can have severe negative effects for detection at test time. In order to overcome this, we propose to segment the context during training via bounding box annotations. We then use the segmentation to learn a context-aware CompositionalNet that disentangles the representation of the context and the object. 2) We extend the part-based voting scheme in CompositionalNets to vote for the corners of the object's bounding box, which enables the model to reliably estimate bounding boxes for partially occluded objects. Our extensive experiments show that our proposed model can detect objects robustly, increasing the detection performance of strongly occluded vehicles from PASCAL3D+ and MS-COCO by 41% and 35% respectively in absolute performance relative to Faster R-CNN.

* Accepted to CVPR 2020 
  
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Robust Object Detection under Occlusion with \\Context-Aware CompositionalNets

May 24, 2020
Angtian Wang, Yihong Sun, Adam Kortylewski, Alan Yuille

Detecting partially occluded objects is a difficult task. Our experimental results show that deep learning approaches, such as Faster R-CNN, are not robust at object detection under occlusion. Compositional convolutional neural networks (CompositionalNets) have been shown to be robust at classifying occluded objects by explicitly representing the object as a composition of parts. In this work, we propose to overcome two limitations of CompositionalNets which will enable them to detect partially occluded objects: 1) CompositionalNets, as well as other DCNN architectures, do not explicitly separate the representation of the context from the object itself. Under strong object occlusion, the influence of the context is amplified which can have severe negative effects for detection at test time. In order to overcome this, we propose to segment the context during training via bounding box annotations. We then use the segmentation to learn a context-aware CompositionalNet that disentangles the representation of the context and the object. 2) We extend the part-based voting scheme in CompositionalNets to vote for the corners of the object's bounding box, which enables the model to reliably estimate bounding boxes for partially occluded objects. Our extensive experiments show that our proposed model can detect objects robustly, increasing the detection performance of strongly occluded vehicles from PASCAL3D+ and MS-COCO by 41\% and 35\% respectively in absolute performance relative to Faster R-CNN.

* Accepted to CVPR 2020 
  
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Shape-Aware Monocular 3D Object Detection

Apr 24, 2022
Wei Chen, Jie Zhao, Wan-Lei Zhao, Song-Yuan Wu

The detection of 3D objects through a single perspective camera is a challenging issue. The anchor-free and keypoint-based models receive increasing attention recently due to their effectiveness and simplicity. However, most of these methods are vulnerable to occluded and truncated objects. In this paper, a single-stage monocular 3D object detection model is proposed. An instance-segmentation head is integrated into the model training, which allows the model to be aware of the visible shape of a target object. The detection largely avoids interference from irrelevant regions surrounding the target objects. In addition, we also reveal that the popular IoU-based evaluation metrics, which were originally designed for evaluating stereo or LiDAR-based detection methods, are insensitive to the improvement of monocular 3D object detection algorithms. A novel evaluation metric, namely average depth similarity (ADS) is proposed for the monocular 3D object detection models. Our method outperforms the baseline on both the popular and the proposed evaluation metrics while maintaining real-time efficiency.

* 8 pages; 6 figures. typo fixed; reference changed 
  
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Detecting Human-Object Interactions with Object-Guided Cross-Modal Calibrated Semantics

Feb 01, 2022
Hangjie Yuan, Mang Wang, Dong Ni, Liangpeng Xu

Human-Object Interaction (HOI) detection is an essential task to understand human-centric images from a fine-grained perspective. Although end-to-end HOI detection models thrive, their paradigm of parallel human/object detection and verb class prediction loses two-stage methods' merit: object-guided hierarchy. The object in one HOI triplet gives direct clues to the verb to be predicted. In this paper, we aim to boost end-to-end models with object-guided statistical priors. Specifically, We propose to utilize a Verb Semantic Model (VSM) and use semantic aggregation to profit from this object-guided hierarchy. Similarity KL (SKL) loss is proposed to optimize VSM to align with the HOI dataset's priors. To overcome the static semantic embedding problem, we propose to generate cross-modality-aware visual and semantic features by Cross-Modal Calibration (CMC). The above modules combined composes Object-guided Cross-modal Calibration Network (OCN). Experiments conducted on two popular HOI detection benchmarks demonstrate the significance of incorporating the statistical prior knowledge and produce state-of-the-art performances. More detailed analysis indicates proposed modules serve as a stronger verb predictor and a more superior method of utilizing prior knowledge. The codes are available at \url{https://github.com/JacobYuan7/OCN-HOI-Benchmark}.

* Accepted to AAAI2022 
  
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Object-Centric Stereo Matching for 3D Object Detection

Sep 17, 2019
Alex D. Pon, Jason Ku, Chengyao Li, Steven L. Waslander

Safe autonomous driving requires reliable 3D object detection-determining the 6 DoF pose and dimensions of objects of interest. Using stereo cameras to solve this task is a cost-effective alternative to the widely used LiDAR sensor. The current state-of-the-art for stereo 3D object detection takes the existing PSMNet stereo matching network, with no modifications, and converts the estimated disparities into a 3D point cloud, and feeds this point cloud into a LiDAR-based 3D object detector. The issue with existing stereo matching networks is that they are designed for disparity estimation, not 3D object detection; the shape and accuracy of object point clouds are not the focus. Stereo matching networks commonly suffer from inaccurate depth estimates at object boundaries, which we define as streaking, because background and foreground points are jointly estimated. Existing networks also penalize disparity instead of the estimated position of object point clouds in their loss functions. We propose a novel 2D box association and object-centric stereo matching method that only estimates the disparities of the objects of interest to address these two issues. Our method achieves state-of-the-art results on the KITTI 3D and BEV benchmarks.

  
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An Objectness Score for Accurate and Fast Detection during Navigation

Aug 26, 2019
Hongsun Choi, Mincheul Kang, Youngsun Kwon, Sung-eui Yoon

We propose a novel method utilizing an objectness score for maintaining the locations and classes of objects detected from Mask R-CNN during mobile robot navigation. The objectness score is defined to measure how well the detector identifies the locations and classes of objects during navigation. Specifically, it is designed to increase when there is sufficient distance between a detected object and the camera. During the navigation process, we transform the locations of objects in 3D world coordinates into 2D image coordinates through an affine projection and decide whether to retain the classes of detected objects using the objectness score. We conducted experiments to determine how well the locations and classes of detected objects are maintained at various angles and positions. Experimental results showed that our approach is efficient and robust, regardless of changing angles and distances.

  
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