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"Information Extraction": models, code, and papers

One-shot Information Extraction from Document Images using Neuro-Deductive Program Synthesis

Jun 06, 2019
Vishal Sunder, Ashwin Srinivasan, Lovekesh Vig, Gautam Shroff, Rohit Rahul

Our interest in this paper is in meeting a rapidly growing industrial demand for information extraction from images of documents such as invoices, bills, receipts etc. In practice users are able to provide a very small number of example images labeled with the information that needs to be extracted. We adopt a novel two-level neuro-deductive, approach where (a) we use pre-trained deep neural networks to populate a relational database with facts about each document-image; and (b) we use a form of deductive reasoning, related to meta-interpretive learning of transition systems to learn extraction programs: Given task-specific transitions defined using the entities and relations identified by the neural detectors and a small number of instances (usually 1, sometimes 2) of images and the desired outputs, a resource-bounded meta-interpreter constructs proofs for the instance(s) via logical deduction; a set of logic programs that extract each desired entity is easily synthesized from such proofs. In most cases a single training example together with a noisy-clone of itself suffices to learn a program-set that generalizes well on test documents, at which time the value of each entity is determined by a majority vote across its program-set. We demonstrate our two-level neuro-deductive approach on publicly available datasets ("Patent" and "Doctor's Bills") and also describe its use in a real-life industrial problem.

* 11 pages, appears in the 13th International Workshop on Neural-Symbolic Learning and Reasoning at IJCAI 2019 
  
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Techniques for Jointly Extracting Entities and Relations: A Survey

Mar 10, 2021
Sachin Pawar, Pushpak Bhattacharyya, Girish K. Palshikar

Relation Extraction is an important task in Information Extraction which deals with identifying semantic relations between entity mentions. Traditionally, relation extraction is carried out after entity extraction in a "pipeline" fashion, so that relation extraction only focuses on determining whether any semantic relation exists between a pair of extracted entity mentions. This leads to propagation of errors from entity extraction stage to relation extraction stage. Also, entity extraction is carried out without any knowledge about the relations. Hence, it was observed that jointly performing entity and relation extraction is beneficial for both the tasks. In this paper, we survey various techniques for jointly extracting entities and relations. We categorize techniques based on the approach they adopt for joint extraction, i.e. whether they employ joint inference or joint modelling or both. We further describe some representative techniques for joint inference and joint modelling. We also describe two standard datasets, evaluation techniques and performance of the joint extraction approaches on these datasets. We present a brief analysis of application of a general domain joint extraction approach to a Biomedical dataset. This survey is useful for researchers as well as practitioners in the field of Information Extraction, by covering a broad landscape of joint extraction techniques.

* Accepted at 20th International Conference on Computational Linguistics and Intelligent Text Processing (CICLing 2019) 
  
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Should We Rely on Entity Mentions for Relation Extraction? Debiasing Relation Extraction with Counterfactual Analysis

May 08, 2022
Yiwei Wang, Muhao Chen, Wenxuan Zhou, Yujun Cai, Yuxuan Liang, Dayiheng Liu, Baosong Yang, Juncheng Liu, Bryan Hooi

Recent literature focuses on utilizing the entity information in the sentence-level relation extraction (RE), but this risks leaking superficial and spurious clues of relations. As a result, RE still suffers from unintended entity bias, i.e., the spurious correlation between entity mentions (names) and relations. Entity bias can mislead the RE models to extract the relations that do not exist in the text. To combat this issue, some previous work masks the entity mentions to prevent the RE models from overfitting entity mentions. However, this strategy degrades the RE performance because it loses the semantic information of entities. In this paper, we propose the CORE (Counterfactual Analysis based Relation Extraction) debiasing method that guides the RE models to focus on the main effects of textual context without losing the entity information. We first construct a causal graph for RE, which models the dependencies between variables in RE models. Then, we propose to conduct counterfactual analysis on our causal graph to distill and mitigate the entity bias, that captures the causal effects of specific entity mentions in each instance. Note that our CORE method is model-agnostic to debias existing RE systems during inference without changing their training processes. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our CORE yields significant gains on both effectiveness and generalization for RE. The source code is provided at: https://github.com/vanoracai/CoRE.

* NAACL 2022 
  
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Learning from the Best: Rationalizing Prediction by Adversarial Information Calibration

Dec 18, 2020
Lei Sha, Oana-Maria Camburu, Thomas Lukasiewicz

Explaining the predictions of AI models is paramount in safety-critical applications, such as in legal or medical domains. One form of explanation for a prediction is an extractive rationale, i.e., a subset of features of an instance that lead the model to give its prediction on the instance. Previous works on generating extractive rationales usually employ a two-phase model: a selector that selects the most important features (i.e., the rationale) followed by a predictor that makes the prediction based exclusively on the selected features. One disadvantage of these works is that the main signal for learning to select features comes from the comparison of the answers given by the predictor and the ground-truth answers. In this work, we propose to squeeze more information from the predictor via an information calibration method. More precisely, we train two models jointly: one is a typical neural model that solves the task at hand in an accurate but black-box manner, and the other is a selector-predictor model that additionally produces a rationale for its prediction. The first model is used as a guide to the second model. We use an adversarial-based technique to calibrate the information extracted by the two models such that the difference between them is an indicator of the missed or over-selected features. In addition, for natural language tasks, we propose to use a language-model-based regularizer to encourage the extraction of fluent rationales. Experimental results on a sentiment analysis task as well as on three tasks from the legal domain show the effectiveness of our approach to rationale extraction.

* Proceedings of the 35th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 2021 
  
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A Semi-automatic Data Extraction System for Heterogeneous Data Sources: A Case Study from Cotton Industry

Nov 05, 2021
Richi Nayak, Thirunavukarasu Balasubramaniam, Sangeetha Kutty, Sachindra Banduthilaka, Erin Peterson

With the recent developments in digitisation, there are increasing number of documents available online. There are several information extraction tools that are available to extract information from digitised documents. However, identifying precise answers to a given query is often a challenging task especially if the data source where the relevant information resides is unknown. This situation becomes more complex when the data source is available in multiple formats such as PDF, table and html. In this paper, we propose a novel data extraction system to discover relevant and focused information from diverse unstructured data sources based on text mining approaches. We perform a qualitative analysis to evaluate the proposed system and its suitability and adaptability using cotton industry.

* Accepted in the 19th Australasian Data Mining Conference 2021 
  
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SFE-Net: EEG-based Emotion Recognition with Symmetrical Spatial Feature Extraction

Apr 25, 2021
Xiangwen Deng, Junlin Zhu, Shangming Yang

Emotion recognition based on EEG (electroencephalography) has been widely used in human-computer interaction, distance education and health care. However, the conventional methods ignore the adjacent and symmetrical characteristics of EEG signals, which also contain salient information related to emotion. In this paper, we present a spatial folding ensemble network (SFENet) for EEG feature extraction and emotion recognition. Firstly, for the undetected area between EEG electrodes, we employ an improved Bicubic-EEG interpolation algorithm for EEG channel information completion, which allows us to extract a wider range of adjacent space features. Then, motivated by the spatial symmetry mechanism of human brain, we fold the input EEG channel data with five different symmetrical strategies: the left-right folds, the right-left folds, the top-bottom folds, the bottom-top folds, and the entire double-sided brain folding, which enable the proposed network to extract the information of space features of EEG signals more effectively. Finally, 3DCNN based spatial and temporal extraction and multi voting strategy of ensemble Learning are employed to model a new neural network. With this network, the spatial features of different symmetric folding signlas can be extracted simultaneously, which greatly improves the robustness and accuracy of feature recognition. The experimental results on DEAP and SEED data sets show that the proposed algorithm has comparable performance in term of recognition accuracy.

* 10 pages, 10 figures 
  
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Heterogeneous Supervision for Relation Extraction: A Representation Learning Approach

Aug 01, 2017
Liyuan Liu, Xiang Ren, Qi Zhu, Shi Zhi, Huan Gui, Heng Ji, Jiawei Han

Relation extraction is a fundamental task in information extraction. Most existing methods have heavy reliance on annotations labeled by human experts, which are costly and time-consuming. To overcome this drawback, we propose a novel framework, REHession, to conduct relation extractor learning using annotations from heterogeneous information source, e.g., knowledge base and domain heuristics. These annotations, referred as heterogeneous supervision, often conflict with each other, which brings a new challenge to the original relation extraction task: how to infer the true label from noisy labels for a given instance. Identifying context information as the backbone of both relation extraction and true label discovery, we adopt embedding techniques to learn the distributed representations of context, which bridges all components with mutual enhancement in an iterative fashion. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the superiority of REHession over the state-of-the-art.

* EMNLP 2017 
  
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