The image biomarker standardisation initiative (IBSI) is an independent international collaboration which works towards standardising the extraction of image biomarkers from acquired imaging for the purpose of high-throughput quantitative image analysis (radiomics). Lack of reproducibility and validation of high-throughput quantitative image analysis studies is considered to be a major challenge for the field. Part of this challenge lies in the scantiness of consensus-based guidelines and definitions for the process of translating acquired imaging into high-throughput image biomarkers. The IBSI therefore seeks to provide image biomarker nomenclature and definitions, benchmark data sets, and benchmark values to verify image processing and image biomarker calculations, as well as reporting guidelines, for high-throughput image analysis.
scikit-image is an image processing library that implements algorithms and utilities for use in research, education and industry applications. It is released under the liberal "Modified BSD" open source license, provides a well-documented API in the Python programming language, and is developed by an active, international team of collaborators. In this paper we highlight the advantages of open source to achieve the goals of the scikit-image library, and we showcase several real-world image processing applications that use scikit-image.
A large number of papers have introduced novel machine learning and feature extraction methods for automatic classification of AD. However, they are difficult to reproduce because key components of the validation are often not readily available. These components include selected participants and input data, image preprocessing and cross-validation procedures. The performance of the different approaches is also difficult to compare objectively. In particular, it is often difficult to assess which part of the method provides a real improvement, if any. We propose a framework for reproducible and objective classification experiments in AD using three publicly available datasets (ADNI, AIBL and OASIS). The framework comprises: i) automatic conversion of the three datasets into BIDS format, ii) a modular set of preprocessing pipelines, feature extraction and classification methods, together with an evaluation framework, that provide a baseline for benchmarking the different components. We demonstrate the use of the framework for a large-scale evaluation on 1960 participants using T1 MRI and FDG PET data. In this evaluation, we assess the influence of different modalities, preprocessing, feature types, classifiers, training set sizes and datasets. Performances were in line with the state-of-the-art. FDG PET outperformed T1 MRI for all classification tasks. No difference in performance was found for the use of different atlases, image smoothing, partial volume correction of FDG PET images, or feature type. Linear SVM and L2-logistic regression resulted in similar performance and both outperformed random forests. The classification performance increased along with the number of subjects used for training. Classifiers trained on ADNI generalized well to AIBL and OASIS. All the code of the framework and the experiments is publicly available at: https://gitlab.icm-institute.org/aramislab/AD-ML.
Neural networks are highly effective tools for image reconstruction problems such as denoising and compressive sensing. To date, neural networks for image reconstruction are almost exclusively convolutional. The most popular architecture is the U-Net, a convolutional network with a multi-resolution architecture. In this work, we show that a simple network based on the multi-layer perceptron (MLP)-mixer enables state-of-the art image reconstruction performance without convolutions and without a multi-resolution architecture, provided that the training set and the size of the network are moderately large. Similar to the original MLP-mixer, the image-to-image MLP-mixer is based exclusively on MLPs operating on linearly-transformed image patches. Contrary to the original MLP-mixer, we incorporate structure by retaining the relative positions of the image patches. This imposes an inductive bias towards natural images which enables the image-to-image MLP-mixer to learn to denoise images based on fewer examples than the original MLP-mixer. Moreover, the image-to-image MLP-mixer requires fewer parameters to achieve the same denoising performance than the U-Net and its parameters scale linearly in the image resolution instead of quadratically as for the original MLP-mixer. If trained on a moderate amount of examples for denoising, the image-to-image MLP-mixer outperforms the U-Net by a slight margin. It also outperforms the vision transformer tailored for image reconstruction and classical un-trained methods such as BM3D, making it a very effective tool for image reconstruction problems.
Generation of maps from satellite images is conventionally done by a range of tools. Maps became an important part of life whose conversion from satellite images may be a bit expensive but Generative models can pander to this challenge. These models aims at finding the patterns between the input and output image. Image to image translation is employed to convert satellite image to corresponding map. Different techniques for image to image translations like Generative adversarial network, Conditional adversarial networks and Co-Variational Auto encoders are used to generate the corresponding human-readable maps for that region, which takes a satellite image at a given zoom level as its input. We are training our model on Conditional Generative Adversarial Network which comprises of Generator model which which generates fake images while the discriminator tries to classify the image as real or fake and both these models are trained synchronously in adversarial manner where both try to fool each other and result in enhancing model performance.
Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) can achieve excellent computer-assisted diagnosis performance, relying on sufficient annotated training data. Unfortunately, most medical imaging datasets, often collected from various scanners, are small and fragmented. In this context, as a Data Augmentation (DA) technique, Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) can synthesize realistic/diverse additional training images to fill the data lack in the real image distribution; researchers have improved classification by augmenting images with noise-to-image (e.g., random noise samples to diverse pathological images) or image-to-image GANs (e.g., a benign image to a malignant one). Yet, no research has reported results combining (i) noise-to-image GANs and image-to-image GANs or (ii) GANs and other deep generative models, for further performance boost. Therefore, to maximize the DA effect with the GAN combinations, we propose a two-step GAN-based DA that generates and refines brain MR images with/without tumors separately: (i) Progressive Growing of GANs (PGGANs), multi-stage noise-to-image GAN for high-resolution image generation, first generates realistic/diverse 256 x 256 images--even a physician cannot accurately distinguish them from real ones via Visual Turing Test; (ii) UNsupervised Image-to-image Translation or SimGAN, image-to-image GAN combining GANs/Variational AutoEncoders or using a GAN loss for DA, further refines the texture/shape of the PGGAN-generated images similarly to the real ones. We thoroughly investigate CNN-based tumor classification results, also considering the influence of pre-training on ImageNet and discarding weird-looking GAN-generated images. The results show that, when combined with classic DA, our two-step GAN-based DA can significantly outperform the classic DA alone, in tumor detection (i.e., boosting sensitivity from 93.63% to 97.53%) and also in other tasks.
Data-driven paradigms using machine learning are becoming ubiquitous in image processing and communications. In particular, image-to-image (I2I) translation is a generic and widely used approach to image processing problems, such as image synthesis, style transfer, and image restoration. At the same time, neural image compression has emerged as a data-driven alternative to traditional coding approaches in visual communications. In this paper, we study the combination of these two paradigms into a joint I2I compression and translation framework, focusing on multi-domain image synthesis. We first propose distributed I2I translation by integrating quantization and entropy coding into an I2I translation framework (i.e. I2Icodec). In practice, the image compression functionality (i.e. autoencoding) is also desirable, requiring to deploy alongside I2Icodec a regular image codec. Thus, we further propose a unified framework that allows both translation and autoencoding capabilities in a single codec. Adaptive residual blocks conditioned on the translation/compression mode provide flexible adaptation to the desired functionality. The experiments show promising results in both I2I translation and image compression using a single model.
A novel method of color image enhancement is proposed, in which three or four color channels of the image are transformed to one channel 2-D grayscale image. This paper describes different models of such transformations in the RGB and other color models. Color image enhancement is achieved by enhancing first the transformed grayscale image and, then, transforming back the grayscale image into the colors. The color image enhancement is done on the transformed 2-D grayscale image rather than on the color image. New algorithms of color image enhancement are described in both frequency and time domains. The enhancement by this novel method shows good results. The enhancement of the image is measured with respect to the metric referred to as the Color Enhancement Measure Estimation (CEME).
This paper is to create a practical steganographic implementation to hide color image (stego) inside another color image (cover). The proposed technique uses Five Modulus Method to convert the whole pixels within both the cover and the stego images into multiples of five. Since each pixels inside the stego image is divisible by five then the whole stego image could be divided by five to get new range of pixels 0..51. Basically, the reminder of each number that is not divisible by five is either 1,2,3 or 4 when divided by 5. Subsequently, then a 4-by-4 window size has been implemented to accommodate the proposed technique. For each 4-by-4 window inside the cover image, a number from 1 to 4 could be embedded secretly from the stego image. The previous discussion must be applied separately for each of the R, G, and B arrays. Moreover, a stego-key could be combined with the proposed algorithm to make it difficult for any adversary to extract the secret image from the cover image. Based on the PSNR value, the extracted stego image has high PSNR value. Hence this new steganography algorithm is very efficient to hide color images.
The potential benefit of hybrid X-ray and MR imaging in the interventional environment is enormous. However, a vast amount of existing image enhancement methods requires the image information to be present in the same domain. To unlock this potential, we present a solution to image-to-image translation from MR projections to corresponding X-ray projection images. The approach is based on a state-of-the-art image generator network that is modified to fit the specific application. Furthermore, we propose the inclusion of a gradient map to the perceptual loss to emphasize high frequency details. The proposed approach is capable of creating X-ray projection images with natural appearance. Additionally, our extensions show clear improvement compared to the baseline method.