Recent advances in artificial general intelligence (AGI), particularly large language models and creative image generation systems have demonstrated impressive capabilities on diverse tasks spanning the arts and humanities. However, the swift evolution of AGI has also raised critical questions about its responsible deployment in these culturally significant domains traditionally seen as profoundly human. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the applications and implications of AGI for text, graphics, audio, and video pertaining to arts and the humanities. We survey cutting-edge systems and their usage in areas ranging from poetry to history, marketing to film, and communication to classical art. We outline substantial concerns pertaining to factuality, toxicity, biases, and public safety in AGI systems, and propose mitigation strategies. The paper argues for multi-stakeholder collaboration to ensure AGI promotes creativity, knowledge, and cultural values without undermining truth or human dignity. Our timely contribution summarizes a rapidly developing field, highlighting promising directions while advocating for responsible progress centering on human flourishing. The analysis lays the groundwork for further research on aligning AGI's technological capacities with enduring social goods.
In recent years we have seen substantial advances in foundation models for artificial intelligence, including language, vision, and multimodal models. Recent studies have highlighted the potential of using foundation models in geospatial artificial intelligence, known as GeoAI Foundation Models, for geographic question answering, remote sensing image understanding, map generation, and location-based services, among others. However, the development and application of GeoAI foundation models can pose serious privacy and security risks, which have not been fully discussed or addressed to date. This paper introduces the potential privacy and security risks throughout the lifecycle of GeoAI foundation models and proposes a comprehensive blueprint for research directions and preventative and control strategies. Through this vision paper, we hope to draw the attention of researchers and policymakers in geospatial domains to these privacy and security risks inherent in GeoAI foundation models and advocate for the development of privacy-preserving and secure GeoAI foundation models.
The application of machine learning (ML) in a range of geospatial tasks is increasingly common but often relies on globally available covariates such as satellite imagery that can either be expensive or lack predictive power. Here we explore the question of whether the vast amounts of knowledge found in Internet language corpora, now compressed within large language models (LLMs), can be leveraged for geospatial prediction tasks. We first demonstrate that LLMs embed remarkable spatial information about locations, but naively querying LLMs using geographic coordinates alone is ineffective in predicting key indicators like population density. We then present GeoLLM, a novel method that can effectively extract geospatial knowledge from LLMs with auxiliary map data from OpenStreetMap. We demonstrate the utility of our approach across multiple tasks of central interest to the international community, including the measurement of population density and economic livelihoods. Across these tasks, our method demonstrates a 70% improvement in performance (measured using Pearson's $r^2$) relative to baselines that use nearest neighbors or use information directly from the prompt, and performance equal to or exceeding satellite-based benchmarks in the literature. With GeoLLM, we observe that GPT-3.5 outperforms Llama 2 and RoBERTa by 19% and 51% respectively, suggesting that the performance of our method scales well with the size of the model and its pretraining dataset. Our experiments reveal that LLMs are remarkably sample-efficient, rich in geospatial information, and robust across the globe. Crucially, GeoLLM shows promise in mitigating the limitations of existing geospatial covariates and complementing them well.
Existing digital sensors capture images at fixed spatial and spectral resolutions (e.g., RGB, multispectral, and hyperspectral images), and each combination requires bespoke machine learning models. Neural Implicit Functions partially overcome the spatial resolution challenge by representing an image in a resolution-independent way. However, they still operate at fixed, pre-defined spectral resolutions. To address this challenge, we propose Spatial-Spectral Implicit Function (SSIF), a neural implicit model that represents an image as a function of both continuous pixel coordinates in the spatial domain and continuous wavelengths in the spectral domain. We empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of SSIF on two challenging spatio-spectral super-resolution benchmarks. We observe that SSIF consistently outperforms state-of-the-art baselines even when the baselines are allowed to train separate models at each spectral resolution. We show that SSIF generalizes well to both unseen spatial resolutions and spectral resolutions. Moreover, SSIF can generate high-resolution images that improve the performance of downstream tasks (e.g., land use classification) by 1.7%-7%.
Artificial General Intelligence (AGI), possessing the capacity to comprehend, learn, and execute tasks with human cognitive abilities, engenders significant anticipation and intrigue across scientific, commercial, and societal arenas. This fascination extends particularly to the Internet of Things (IoT), a landscape characterized by the interconnection of countless devices, sensors, and systems, collectively gathering and sharing data to enable intelligent decision-making and automation. This research embarks on an exploration of the opportunities and challenges towards achieving AGI in the context of the IoT. Specifically, it starts by outlining the fundamental principles of IoT and the critical role of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in IoT systems. Subsequently, it delves into AGI fundamentals, culminating in the formulation of a conceptual framework for AGI's seamless integration within IoT. The application spectrum for AGI-infused IoT is broad, encompassing domains ranging from smart grids, residential environments, manufacturing, and transportation to environmental monitoring, agriculture, healthcare, and education. However, adapting AGI to resource-constrained IoT settings necessitates dedicated research efforts. Furthermore, the paper addresses constraints imposed by limited computing resources, intricacies associated with large-scale IoT communication, as well as the critical concerns pertaining to security and privacy.
Generating learning-friendly representations for points in space is a fundamental and long-standing problem in ML. Recently, multi-scale encoding schemes (such as Space2Vec and NeRF) were proposed to directly encode any point in 2D/3D Euclidean space as a high-dimensional vector, and has been successfully applied to various geospatial prediction and generative tasks. However, all current 2D and 3D location encoders are designed to model point distances in Euclidean space. So when applied to large-scale real-world GPS coordinate datasets, which require distance metric learning on the spherical surface, both types of models can fail due to the map projection distortion problem (2D) and the spherical-to-Euclidean distance approximation error (3D). To solve these problems, we propose a multi-scale location encoder called Sphere2Vec which can preserve spherical distances when encoding point coordinates on a spherical surface. We developed a unified view of distance-reserving encoding on spheres based on the DFS. We also provide theoretical proof that the Sphere2Vec preserves the spherical surface distance between any two points, while existing encoding schemes do not. Experiments on 20 synthetic datasets show that Sphere2Vec can outperform all baseline models on all these datasets with up to 30.8% error rate reduction. We then apply Sphere2Vec to three geo-aware image classification tasks - fine-grained species recognition, Flickr image recognition, and remote sensing image classification. Results on 7 real-world datasets show the superiority of Sphere2Vec over multiple location encoders on all three tasks. Further analysis shows that Sphere2Vec outperforms other location encoder models, especially in the polar regions and data-sparse areas because of its nature for spherical surface distance preservation. Code and data are available at https://gengchenmai.github.io/sphere2vec-website/.
This paper explores new frontiers in agricultural natural language processing by investigating the effectiveness of using food-related text corpora for pretraining transformer-based language models. In particular, we focus on the task of semantic matching, which involves establishing mappings between food descriptions and nutrition data. To accomplish this, we fine-tune a pre-trained transformer-based language model, AgriBERT, on this task, utilizing an external source of knowledge, such as the FoodOn ontology. To advance the field of agricultural NLP, we propose two new avenues of exploration: (1) utilizing GPT-based models as a baseline and (2) leveraging ChatGPT as an external source of knowledge. ChatGPT has shown to be a strong baseline in many NLP tasks, and we believe it has the potential to improve our model in the task of semantic matching and enhance our model's understanding of food-related concepts and relationships. Additionally, we experiment with other applications, such as cuisine prediction based on food ingredients, and expand the scope of our research to include other NLP tasks beyond semantic matching. Overall, this paper provides promising avenues for future research in this field, with potential implications for improving the performance of agricultural NLP applications.
In this pioneering study, inspired by AutoGPT, the state-of-the-art open-source application based on the GPT-4 large language model, we develop a novel tool called AD-AutoGPT which can conduct data collection, processing, and analysis about complex health narratives of Alzheimer's Disease in an autonomous manner via users' textual prompts. We collated comprehensive data from a variety of news sources, including the Alzheimer's Association, BBC, Mayo Clinic, and the National Institute on Aging since June 2022, leading to the autonomous execution of robust trend analyses, intertopic distance maps visualization, and identification of salient terms pertinent to Alzheimer's Disease. This approach has yielded not only a quantifiable metric of relevant discourse but also valuable insights into public focus on Alzheimer's Disease. This application of AD-AutoGPT in public health signifies the transformative potential of AI in facilitating a data-rich understanding of complex health narratives like Alzheimer's Disease in an autonomous manner, setting the groundwork for future AI-driven investigations in global health landscapes.
Geo-tagged images are publicly available in large quantities, whereas labels such as object classes are rather scarce and expensive to collect. Meanwhile, contrastive learning has achieved tremendous success in various natural image and language tasks with limited labeled data. However, existing methods fail to fully leverage geospatial information, which can be paramount to distinguishing objects that are visually similar. To directly leverage the abundant geospatial information associated with images in pre-training, fine-tuning, and inference stages, we present Contrastive Spatial Pre-Training (CSP), a self-supervised learning framework for geo-tagged images. We use a dual-encoder to separately encode the images and their corresponding geo-locations, and use contrastive objectives to learn effective location representations from images, which can be transferred to downstream supervised tasks such as image classification. Experiments show that CSP can improve model performance on both iNat2018 and fMoW datasets. Especially, on iNat2018, CSP significantly boosts the model performance with 10-34% relative improvement with various labeled training data sampling ratios.