Recent advances in 2D zero-shot and few-shot recognition often leverage large pre-trained vision-language models (VLMs) such as CLIP. Due to a shortage of suitable datasets, it is currently infeasible to train such models for event camera data. Thus, leveraging existing models across modalities is an important research challenge. In this work, we propose EventCLIP, a new method that utilizes CLIP for zero-shot and few-shot recognition on event camera data. First, we demonstrate the suitability of CLIP's image embeddings for zero-shot event classification by converting raw events to 2D grid-based representations. Second, we propose a feature adapter that aggregates temporal information over event frames and refines text embeddings to better align with the visual inputs. We evaluate our work on N-Caltech, N-Cars, and N-ImageNet datasets under the few-shot learning setting, where EventCLIP achieves state-of-the-art performance. Finally, we show that the robustness of existing event-based classifiers against data variations can be further boosted by ensembling with EventCLIP.
Object-centric learning aims to represent visual data with a set of object entities (a.k.a. slots), providing structured representations that enable systematic generalization. Leveraging advanced architectures like Transformers, recent approaches have made significant progress in unsupervised object discovery. In addition, slot-based representations hold great potential for generative modeling, such as controllable image generation and object manipulation in image editing. However, current slot-based methods often produce blurry images and distorted objects, exhibiting poor generative modeling capabilities. In this paper, we focus on improving slot-to-image decoding, a crucial aspect for high-quality visual generation. We introduce SlotDiffusion -- an object-centric Latent Diffusion Model (LDM) designed for both image and video data. Thanks to the powerful modeling capacity of LDMs, SlotDiffusion surpasses previous slot models in unsupervised object segmentation and visual generation across six datasets. Furthermore, our learned object features can be utilized by existing object-centric dynamics models, improving video prediction quality and downstream temporal reasoning tasks. Finally, we demonstrate the scalability of SlotDiffusion to unconstrained real-world datasets such as PASCAL VOC and COCO, when integrated with self-supervised pre-trained image encoders.
We introduce Breaking Bad, a large-scale dataset of fractured objects. Our dataset consists of over one million fractured objects simulated from ten thousand base models. The fracture simulation is powered by a recent physically based algorithm that efficiently generates a variety of fracture modes of an object. Existing shape assembly datasets decompose objects according to semantically meaningful parts, effectively modeling the construction process. In contrast, Breaking Bad models the destruction process of how a geometric object naturally breaks into fragments. Our dataset serves as a benchmark that enables the study of fractured object reassembly and presents new challenges for geometric shape understanding. We analyze our dataset with several geometry measurements and benchmark three state-of-the-art shape assembly deep learning methods under various settings. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the difficulty of our dataset, calling on future research in model designs specifically for the geometric shape assembly task. We host our dataset at https://breaking-bad-dataset.github.io/.
Understanding dynamics from visual observations is a challenging problem that requires disentangling individual objects from the scene and learning their interactions. While recent object-centric models can successfully decompose a scene into objects, modeling their dynamics effectively still remains a challenge. We address this problem by introducing SlotFormer -- a Transformer-based autoregressive model operating on learned object-centric representations. Given a video clip, our approach reasons over object features to model spatio-temporal relationships and predicts accurate future object states. In this paper, we successfully apply SlotFormer to perform video prediction on datasets with complex object interactions. Moreover, the unsupervised SlotFormer's dynamics model can be used to improve the performance on supervised downstream tasks, such as Visual Question Answering (VQA), and goal-conditioned planning. Compared to past works on dynamics modeling, our method achieves significantly better long-term synthesis of object dynamics, while retaining high quality visual generation. Besides, SlotFormer enables VQA models to reason about the future without object-level labels, even outperforming counterparts that use ground-truth annotations. Finally, we show its ability to serve as a world model for model-based planning, which is competitive with methods designed specifically for such tasks.
Language models demonstrate both quantitative improvement and new qualitative capabilities with increasing scale. Despite their potentially transformative impact, these new capabilities are as yet poorly characterized. In order to inform future research, prepare for disruptive new model capabilities, and ameliorate socially harmful effects, it is vital that we understand the present and near-future capabilities and limitations of language models. To address this challenge, we introduce the Beyond the Imitation Game benchmark (BIG-bench). BIG-bench currently consists of 204 tasks, contributed by 442 authors across 132 institutions. Task topics are diverse, drawing problems from linguistics, childhood development, math, common-sense reasoning, biology, physics, social bias, software development, and beyond. BIG-bench focuses on tasks that are believed to be beyond the capabilities of current language models. We evaluate the behavior of OpenAI's GPT models, Google-internal dense transformer architectures, and Switch-style sparse transformers on BIG-bench, across model sizes spanning millions to hundreds of billions of parameters. In addition, a team of human expert raters performed all tasks in order to provide a strong baseline. Findings include: model performance and calibration both improve with scale, but are poor in absolute terms (and when compared with rater performance); performance is remarkably similar across model classes, though with benefits from sparsity; tasks that improve gradually and predictably commonly involve a large knowledge or memorization component, whereas tasks that exhibit "breakthrough" behavior at a critical scale often involve multiple steps or components, or brittle metrics; social bias typically increases with scale in settings with ambiguous context, but this can be improved with prompting.
Recent advances in deep learning significantly boost the performance of salient object detection (SOD) at the expense of labeling larger-scale per-pixel annotations. To relieve the burden of labor-intensive labeling, deep unsupervised SOD methods have been proposed to exploit noisy labels generated by handcrafted saliency methods. However, it is still difficult to learn accurate saliency details from rough noisy labels. In this paper, we propose to learn saliency from synthetic but clean labels, which naturally has higher pixel-labeling quality without the effort of manual annotations. Specifically, we first construct a novel synthetic SOD dataset by a simple copy-paste strategy. Considering the large appearance differences between the synthetic and real-world scenarios, directly training with synthetic data will lead to performance degradation on real-world scenarios. To mitigate this problem, we propose a novel unsupervised domain adaptive SOD method to adapt between these two domains by uncertainty-aware self-training. Experimental results show that our proposed method outperforms the existing state-of-the-art deep unsupervised SOD methods on several benchmark datasets, and is even comparable to fully-supervised ones.
In this paper, we investigate the dynamics-aware adversarial attack problem in deep neural networks. Most existing adversarial attack algorithms are designed under a basic assumption -- the network architecture is fixed throughout the attack process. However, this assumption does not hold for many recently proposed networks, e.g. 3D sparse convolution network, which contains input-dependent execution to improve computational efficiency. It results in a serious issue of lagged gradient, making the learned attack at the current step ineffective due to the architecture changes afterward. To address this issue, we propose a Leaded Gradient Method (LGM) and show the significant effects of the lagged gradient. More specifically, we re-formulate the gradients to be aware of the potential dynamic changes of network architectures, so that the learned attack better "leads" the next step than the dynamics-unaware methods when network architecture changes dynamically. Extensive experiments on various datasets show that our LGM achieves impressive performance on semantic segmentation and classification. Compared with the dynamic-unaware methods, LGM achieves about 20% lower mIoU averagely on the ScanNet and S3DIS datasets. LGM also outperforms the recent point cloud attacks.
Accurate inference of fine-grained traffic flow from coarse-grained one is an emerging yet crucial problem, which can help greatly reduce the number of traffic monitoring sensors for cost savings. In this work, we notice that traffic flow has a high correlation with road network, which was either completely ignored or simply treated as an external factor in previous works. To facilitate this problem, we propose a novel Road-Aware Traffic Flow Magnifier (RATFM) that explicitly exploits the prior knowledge of road networks to fully learn the road-aware spatial distribution of fine-grained traffic flow. Specifically, a multi-directional 1D convolutional layer is first introduced to extract the semantic feature of the road network. Subsequently, we incorporate the road network feature and coarse-grained flow feature to regularize the short-range spatial distribution modeling of road-relative traffic flow. Furthermore, we take the road network feature as a query to capture the long-range spatial distribution of traffic flow with a transformer architecture. Benefiting from the road-aware inference mechanism, our method can generate high-quality fine-grained traffic flow maps. Extensive experiments on three real-world datasets show that the proposed RATFM outperforms state-of-the-art models under various scenarios.
In this paper, we propose an instance similarity learning (ISL) method for unsupervised feature representation. Conventional methods assign close instance pairs in the feature space with high similarity, which usually leads to wrong pairwise relationship for large neighborhoods because the Euclidean distance fails to depict the true semantic similarity on the feature manifold. On the contrary, our method mines the feature manifold in an unsupervised manner, through which the semantic similarity among instances is learned in order to obtain discriminative representations. Specifically, we employ the Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) to mine the underlying feature manifold, where the generated features are applied as the proxies to progressively explore the feature manifold so that the semantic similarity among instances is acquired as reliable pseudo supervision. Extensive experiments on image classification demonstrate the superiority of our method compared with the state-of-the-art methods. The code is available at https://github.com/ZiweiWangTHU/ISL.git.