Neural graphics primitives are faster and achieve higher quality when their neural networks are augmented by spatial data structures that hold trainable features arranged in a grid. However, existing feature grids either come with a large memory footprint (dense or factorized grids, trees, and hash tables) or slow performance (index learning and vector quantization). In this paper, we show that a hash table with learned probes has neither disadvantage, resulting in a favorable combination of size and speed. Inference is faster than unprobed hash tables at equal quality while training is only 1.2-2.6x slower, significantly outperforming prior index learning approaches. We arrive at this formulation by casting all feature grids into a common framework: they each correspond to a lookup function that indexes into a table of feature vectors. In this framework, the lookup functions of existing data structures can be combined by simple arithmetic combinations of their indices, resulting in Pareto optimal compression and speed.
We present VecFusion, a new neural architecture that can generate vector fonts with varying topological structures and precise control point positions. Our approach is a cascaded diffusion model which consists of a raster diffusion model followed by a vector diffusion model. The raster model generates low-resolution, rasterized fonts with auxiliary control point information, capturing the global style and shape of the font, while the vector model synthesizes vector fonts conditioned on the low-resolution raster fonts from the first stage. To synthesize long and complex curves, our vector diffusion model uses a transformer architecture and a novel vector representation that enables the modeling of diverse vector geometry and the precise prediction of control points. Our experiments show that, in contrast to previous generative models for vector graphics, our new cascaded vector diffusion model generates higher quality vector fonts, with complex structures and diverse styles.
Reconstructing a surface from a point cloud is an underdetermined problem. We use a neural network to study and quantify this reconstruction uncertainty under a Poisson smoothness prior. Our algorithm addresses the main limitations of existing work and can be fully integrated into the 3D scanning pipeline, from obtaining an initial reconstruction to deciding on the next best sensor position and updating the reconstruction upon capturing more data.
Neural Radiance Fields (NeRFs) have shown promise in applications like view synthesis and depth estimation, but learning from multiview images faces inherent uncertainties. Current methods to quantify them are either heuristic or computationally demanding. We introduce BayesRays, a post-hoc framework to evaluate uncertainty in any pre-trained NeRF without modifying the training process. Our method establishes a volumetric uncertainty field using spatial perturbations and a Bayesian Laplace approximation. We derive our algorithm statistically and show its superior performance in key metrics and applications. Additional results available at: https://bayesrays.github.io.
The recent proliferation of 3D content that can be consumed on hand-held devices necessitates efficient tools for transmitting large geometric data, e.g., 3D meshes, over the Internet. Detailed high-resolution assets can pose a challenge to storage as well as transmission bandwidth, and level-of-detail techniques are often used to transmit an asset using an appropriate bandwidth budget. It is especially desirable for these methods to transmit data progressively, improving the quality of the geometry with more data. Our key insight is that the geometric details of 3D meshes often exhibit similar local patterns even across different shapes, and thus can be effectively represented with a shared learned generative space. We learn this space using a subdivision-based encoder-decoder architecture trained in advance on a large collection of surfaces. We further observe that additional residual features can be transmitted progressively between intermediate levels of subdivision that enable the client to control the tradeoff between bandwidth cost and quality of reconstruction, providing a neural progressive mesh representation. We evaluate our method on a diverse set of complex 3D shapes and demonstrate that it outperforms baselines in terms of compression ratio and reconstruction quality.
Physical systems ranging from elastic bodies to kinematic linkages are defined on high-dimensional configuration spaces, yet their typical low-energy configurations are concentrated on much lower-dimensional subspaces. This work addresses the challenge of identifying such subspaces automatically: given as input an energy function for a high-dimensional system, we produce a low-dimensional map whose image parameterizes a diverse yet low-energy submanifold of configurations. The only additional input needed is a single seed configuration for the system to initialize our procedure; no dataset of trajectories is required. We represent subspaces as neural networks that map a low-dimensional latent vector to the full configuration space, and propose a training scheme to fit network parameters to any system of interest. This formulation is effective across a very general range of physical systems; our experiments demonstrate not only nonlinear and very low-dimensional elastic body and cloth subspaces, but also more general systems like colliding rigid bodies and linkages. We briefly explore applications built on this formulation, including manipulation, latent interpolation, and sampling.
We introduce Breaking Bad, a large-scale dataset of fractured objects. Our dataset consists of over one million fractured objects simulated from ten thousand base models. The fracture simulation is powered by a recent physically based algorithm that efficiently generates a variety of fracture modes of an object. Existing shape assembly datasets decompose objects according to semantically meaningful parts, effectively modeling the construction process. In contrast, Breaking Bad models the destruction process of how a geometric object naturally breaks into fragments. Our dataset serves as a benchmark that enables the study of fractured object reassembly and presents new challenges for geometric shape understanding. We analyze our dataset with several geometry measurements and benchmark three state-of-the-art shape assembly deep learning methods under various settings. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the difficulty of our dataset, calling on future research in model designs specifically for the geometric shape assembly task. We host our dataset at https://breaking-bad-dataset.github.io/.
Neural approximations of scalar and vector fields, such as signed distance functions and radiance fields, have emerged as accurate, high-quality representations. State-of-the-art results are obtained by conditioning a neural approximation with a lookup from trainable feature grids that take on part of the learning task and allow for smaller, more efficient neural networks. Unfortunately, these feature grids usually come at the cost of significantly increased memory consumption compared to stand-alone neural network models. We present a dictionary method for compressing such feature grids, reducing their memory consumption by up to 100x and permitting a multiresolution representation which can be useful for out-of-core streaming. We formulate the dictionary optimization as a vector-quantized auto-decoder problem which lets us learn end-to-end discrete neural representations in a space where no direct supervision is available and with dynamic topology and structure. Our source code will be available at https://github.com/nv-tlabs/vqad.
Learning to autonomously assemble shapes is a crucial skill for many robotic applications. While the majority of existing part assembly methods focus on correctly posing semantic parts to recreate a whole object, we interpret assembly more literally: as mating geometric parts together to achieve a snug fit. By focusing on shape alignment rather than semantic cues, we can achieve across-category generalization. In this paper, we introduce a novel task, pairwise 3D geometric shape mating, and propose Neural Shape Mating (NSM) to tackle this problem. Given the point clouds of two object parts of an unknown category, NSM learns to reason about the fit of the two parts and predict a pair of 3D poses that tightly mate them together. We couple the training of NSM with an implicit shape reconstruction task to make NSM more robust to imperfect point cloud observations. To train NSM, we present a self-supervised data collection pipeline that generates pairwise shape mating data with ground truth by randomly cutting an object mesh into two parts, resulting in a dataset that consists of 200K shape mating pairs from numerous object meshes with diverse cut types. We train NSM on the collected dataset and compare it with several point cloud registration methods and one part assembly baseline. Extensive experimental results and ablation studies under various settings demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Additional material is available at: https://neural-shape-mating.github.io/
The rise of geometric problems in machine learning has necessitated the development of equivariant methods, which preserve their output under the action of rotation or some other transformation. At the same time, the Adam optimization algorithm has proven remarkably effective across machine learning and even traditional tasks in geometric optimization. In this work, we observe that naively applying Adam to optimize vector-valued data is not rotation equivariant, due to per-coordinate moment updates, and in fact this leads to significant artifacts and biases in practice. We propose to resolve this deficiency with VectorAdam, a simple modification which makes Adam rotation-equivariant by accounting for the vector structure of optimization variables. We demonstrate this approach on problems in machine learning and traditional geometric optimization, showing that equivariant VectorAdam resolves the artifacts and biases of traditional Adam when applied to vector-valued data, with equivalent or even improved rates of convergence.