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Authors:Qintong Zhang, Victor Shea-Jay Huang, Bin Wang, Junyuan Zhang, Zhengren Wang, Hao Liang, Shawn Wang, Matthieu Lin, Conghui He, Wentao Zhang

Abstract:Document parsing is essential for converting unstructured and semi-structured documents-such as contracts, academic papers, and invoices-into structured, machine-readable data. Document parsing extract reliable structured data from unstructured inputs, providing huge convenience for numerous applications. Especially with recent achievements in Large Language Models, document parsing plays an indispensable role in both knowledge base construction and training data generation. This survey presents a comprehensive review of the current state of document parsing, covering key methodologies, from modular pipeline systems to end-to-end models driven by large vision-language models. Core components such as layout detection, content extraction (including text, tables, and mathematical expressions), and multi-modal data integration are examined in detail. Additionally, this paper discusses the challenges faced by modular document parsing systems and vision-language models in handling complex layouts, integrating multiple modules, and recognizing high-density text. It emphasizes the importance of developing larger and more diverse datasets and outlines future research directions.

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Authors:Zhengren Wang

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Abstract:The field of 3D representation has experienced significant advancements, driven by the increasing demand for high-fidelity 3D models in various applications such as computer graphics, virtual reality, and autonomous systems. This review examines the development and current state of 3D representation methods, highlighting their research trajectories, innovations, strength and weakness. Key techniques such as Voxel Grid, Point Cloud, Mesh, Signed Distance Function (SDF), Neural Radiance Field (NeRF), 3D Gaussian Splatting, Tri-Plane, and Deep Marching Tetrahedra (DMTet) are reviewed. The review also introduces essential datasets that have been pivotal in advancing the field, highlighting their characteristics and impact on research progress. Finally, we explore potential research directions that hold promise for further expanding the capabilities and applications of 3D representation methods.

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Authors:Zhengren Wang, Qinhan Yu, Shida Wei, Zhiyu Li, Feiyu Xiong, Xiaoxing Wang, Simin Niu, Hao Liang, Wentao Zhang

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Abstract:Modern QA systems entail retrieval-augmented generation (RAG) for accurate and trustworthy responses. However, the inherent gap between user queries and relevant documents hinders precise matching. Motivated by our conical distribution hypothesis, which posits that potential queries and documents form a cone-like structure in the embedding space, we introduce QAEncoder, a training-free approach to bridge this gap. Specifically, QAEncoder estimates the expectation of potential queries in the embedding space as a robust surrogate for the document embedding, and attaches document fingerprints to effectively distinguish these embeddings. Extensive experiments on fourteen embedding models across six languages and eight datasets validate QAEncoder's alignment capability, which offers a plug-and-play solution that seamlessly integrates with existing RAG architectures and training-based methods.

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Abstract:In a bipartite graph, a subgraph is an $s$-biplex if each vertex of the subgraph is adjacent to all but at most $s$ vertices on the opposite set. The enumeration of $s$-biplexes from a given graph is a fundamental problem in bipartite graph analysis. However, in real-world data engineering, finding all $s$-biplexes is neither necessary nor computationally affordable. A more realistic problem is to identify some of the largest $s$-biplexes from the large input graph. We formulate the problem as the {\em top-$k$ $s$-biplex search (TBS) problem}, which aims to find the top-$k$ maximal $s$-biplexes with the most vertices, where $k$ is an input parameter. We prove that the TBS problem is NP-hard for any fixed $k\ge 1$. Then, we propose a branching algorithm, named MVBP, that breaks the simple $2^n$ enumeration algorithm. Furthermore, from a practical perspective, we investigate three techniques to improve the performance of MVBP: 2-hop decomposition, single-side bounds, and progressive search. Complexity analysis shows that the improved algorithm, named FastMVBP, has a running time $O^*(\gamma_s^{d_2})$, where $\gamma_s<2$, and $d_2$ is a parameter much smaller than the number of vertex in the sparse real-world graphs, e.g. $d_2$ is only $67$ in the AmazonRatings dataset which has more than $3$ million vertices. Finally, we conducted extensive experiments on eight real-world and synthetic datasets to demonstrate the empirical efficiency of the proposed algorithms. In particular, FastMVBP outperforms the benchmark algorithms by up to three orders of magnitude in several instances.

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Abstract:A $k$-defective clique of an undirected graph $G$ is a subset of its vertices that induces a nearly complete graph with a maximum of $k$ missing edges. The maximum $k$-defective clique problem, which asks for the largest $k$-defective clique from the given graph, is important in many applications, such as social and biological network analysis. In the paper, we propose a new branching algorithm that takes advantage of the structural properties of the $k$-defective clique and uses the efficient maximum clique algorithm as a subroutine. As a result, the algorithm has a better asymptotic running time than the existing ones. We also investigate upper-bounding techniques and propose a new upper bound utilizing the \textit{conflict relationship} between vertex pairs. Because conflict relationship is common in many graph problems, we believe that this technique can be potentially generalized. Finally, experiments show that our algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art solvers on a wide range of open benchmarks.

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Authors:Penghao Zhao, Hailin Zhang, Qinhan Yu, Zhengren Wang, Yunteng Geng, Fangcheng Fu, Ling Yang, Wentao Zhang, Bin Cui

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Abstract:The development of Artificial Intelligence Generated Content (AIGC) has been facilitated by advancements in model algorithms, scalable foundation model architectures, and the availability of ample high-quality datasets. While AIGC has achieved remarkable performance, it still faces challenges, such as the difficulty of maintaining up-to-date and long-tail knowledge, the risk of data leakage, and the high costs associated with training and inference. Retrieval-Augmented Generation (RAG) has recently emerged as a paradigm to address such challenges. In particular, RAG introduces the information retrieval process, which enhances AIGC results by retrieving relevant objects from available data stores, leading to greater accuracy and robustness. In this paper, we comprehensively review existing efforts that integrate RAG technique into AIGC scenarios. We first classify RAG foundations according to how the retriever augments the generator. We distill the fundamental abstractions of the augmentation methodologies for various retrievers and generators. This unified perspective encompasses all RAG scenarios, illuminating advancements and pivotal technologies that help with potential future progress. We also summarize additional enhancements methods for RAG, facilitating effective engineering and implementation of RAG systems. Then from another view, we survey on practical applications of RAG across different modalities and tasks, offering valuable references for researchers and practitioners. Furthermore, we introduce the benchmarks for RAG, discuss the limitations of current RAG systems, and suggest potential directions for future research. Project: https://github.com/hymie122/RAG-Survey

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Abstract:Given a graph, the $k$-plex is a vertex set in which each vertex is not adjacent to at most $k-1$ other vertices in the set. The maximum $k$-plex problem, which asks for the largest $k$-plex from a given graph, is an important but computationally challenging problem in applications like graph search and community detection. So far, there is a number of empirical algorithms without sufficient theoretical explanations on the efficiency. We try to bridge this gap by defining a novel parameter of the input instance, $g_k(G)$, the gap between the degeneracy bound and the size of maximum $k$-plex in the given graph, and presenting an exact algorithm parameterized by $g_k(G)$. In other words, we design an algorithm with running time polynomial in the size of input graph and exponential in $g_k(G)$ where $k$ is a constant. Usually, $g_k(G)$ is small and bounded by $O(\log{(|V|)})$ in real-world graphs, indicating that the algorithm runs in polynomial time. We also carry out massive experiments and show that the algorithm is competitive with the state-of-the-art solvers. Additionally, for large $k$ values such as $15$ and $20$, our algorithm has superior performance over existing algorithms.

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Abstract:Listing dense subgraphs in large graphs plays a key task in varieties of network analysis applications like community detection. Clique, as the densest model, has been widely investigated. However, in practice, communities rarely form as cliques for various reasons, e.g., data noise. Therefore, $k$-plex, -- graph with each vertex adjacent to all but at most $k$ vertices, is introduced as a relaxed version of clique. Often, to better simulate cohesive communities, an emphasis is placed on connected $k$-plexes with small $k$. In this paper, we continue the research line of listing all maximal $k$-plexes and maximal $k$-plexes of prescribed size. Our first contribution is algorithm ListPlex that lists all maximal $k$-plexes in $O^*(\gamma^D)$ time for each constant $k$, where $\gamma$ is a value related to $k$ but strictly smaller than 2, and $D$ is the degeneracy of the graph that is far less than the vertex number $n$ in real-word graphs. Compared to the trivial bound of $2^n$, the improvement is significant, and our bound is better than all previously known results. In practice, we further use several techniques to accelerate listing $k$-plexes of a given size, such as structural-based prune rules, cache-efficient data structures, and parallel techniques. All these together result in a very practical algorithm. Empirical results show that our approach outperforms the state-of-the-art solutions by up to orders of magnitude.

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