Despite the progress of image segmentation for accurate visual entity segmentation, completing the diverse requirements of image editing applications for different-level region-of-interest selections remains unsolved. In this paper, we propose a new task, All-Inclusive Multi-Level Segmentation (AIMS), which segments visual regions into three levels: part, entity, and relation (two entities with some semantic relationships). We also build a unified AIMS model through multi-dataset multi-task training to address the two major challenges of annotation inconsistency and task correlation. Specifically, we propose task complementarity, association, and prompt mask encoder for three-level predictions. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and generalization capacity of our method compared to other state-of-the-art methods on a single dataset or the concurrent work on segmenting anything. We will make our code and training model publicly available.
With the widespread popularity of user-generated short videos, it becomes increasingly challenging for content creators to promote their content to potential viewers. Automatically generating appealing titles and covers for short videos can help grab viewers' attention. Existing studies on video captioning mostly focus on generating factual descriptions of actions, which do not conform to video titles intended for catching viewer attention. Furthermore, research for cover selection based on multimodal information is sparse. These problems motivate the need for tailored methods to specifically support the joint task of short video title generation and cover selection (TG-CS) as well as the demand for creating corresponding datasets to support the studies. In this paper, we first collect and present a real-world dataset named Short Video Title Generation (SVTG) that contains videos with appealing titles and covers. We then propose a Title generation and Cover selection with attention Refinement (TCR) method for TG-CS. The refinement procedure progressively selects high-quality samples and highly relevant frames and text tokens within each sample to refine model training. Extensive experiments show that our TCR method is superior to various existing video captioning methods in generating titles and is able to select better covers for noisy real-world short videos.
Despite the recent emergence of video captioning models, how to generate vivid, fine-grained video descriptions based on the background knowledge (i.e., long and informative commentary about the domain-specific scenes with appropriate reasoning) is still far from being solved, which however has great applications such as automatic sports narrative. In this paper, we present GOAL, a benchmark of over 8.9k soccer video clips, 22k sentences, and 42k knowledge triples for proposing a challenging new task setting as Knowledge-grounded Video Captioning (KGVC). Moreover, we conduct experimental adaption of existing methods to show the difficulty and potential directions for solving this valuable and applicable task.
Nested Named Entity Recognition (NNER) has been a long-term challenge to researchers as an important sub-area of Named Entity Recognition. NNER is where one entity may be part of a longer entity, and this may happen on multiple levels, as the term nested suggests. These nested structures make traditional sequence labeling methods unable to properly recognize all entities. While recent researches focus on designing better recognition methods for NNER in a variety of languages, the Chinese NNER (CNNER) still lacks attention, where a free-for-access, CNNER-specialized benchmark is absent. In this paper, we aim to solve CNNER problems by providing a Chinese dataset and a learning-based model to tackle the issue. To facilitate the research on this task, we release ChiNesE, a CNNER dataset with 20,000 sentences sampled from online passages of multiple domains, containing 117,284 entities failing in 10 categories, where 43.8 percent of those entities are nested. Based on ChiNesE, we propose Mulco, a novel method that can recognize named entities in nested structures through multiple scopes. Each scope use a designed scope-based sequence labeling method, which predicts an anchor and the length of a named entity to recognize it. Experiment results show that Mulco has outperformed several baseline methods with the different recognizing schemes on ChiNesE. We also conduct extensive experiments on ACE2005 Chinese corpus, where Mulco has achieved the best performance compared with the baseline methods.
Large language models (LLMs) have been shown to be able to perform new tasks based on a few demonstrations or natural language instructions. While these capabilities have led to widespread adoption, most LLMs are developed by resource-rich organizations and are frequently kept from the public. As a step towards democratizing this powerful technology, we present BLOOM, a 176B-parameter open-access language model designed and built thanks to a collaboration of hundreds of researchers. BLOOM is a decoder-only Transformer language model that was trained on the ROOTS corpus, a dataset comprising hundreds of sources in 46 natural and 13 programming languages (59 in total). We find that BLOOM achieves competitive performance on a wide variety of benchmarks, with stronger results after undergoing multitask prompted finetuning. To facilitate future research and applications using LLMs, we publicly release our models and code under the Responsible AI License.
Existing benchmark datasets for recommender systems (RS) either are created at a small scale or involve very limited forms of user feedback. RS models evaluated on such datasets often lack practical values for large-scale real-world applications. In this paper, we describe Tenrec, a novel and publicly available data collection for RS that records various user feedback from four different recommendation scenarios. To be specific, Tenrec has the following five characteristics: (1) it is large-scale, containing around 5 million users and 140 million interactions; (2) it has not only positive user feedback, but also true negative feedback (vs. one-class recommendation); (3) it contains overlapped users and items across four different scenarios; (4) it contains various types of user positive feedback, in forms of clicks, likes, shares, and follows, etc; (5) it contains additional features beyond the user IDs and item IDs. We verify Tenrec on ten diverse recommendation tasks by running several classical baseline models per task. Tenrec has the potential to become a useful benchmark dataset for a majority of popular recommendation tasks.
Diabetes prediction is an important data science application in the social healthcare domain. There exist two main challenges in the diabetes prediction task: data heterogeneity since demographic and metabolic data are of different types, data insufficiency since the number of diabetes cases in a single medical center is usually limited. To tackle the above challenges, we employ gradient boosting decision trees (GBDT) to handle data heterogeneity and introduce multi-task learning (MTL) to solve data insufficiency. To this end, Task-wise Split Gradient Boosting Trees (TSGB) is proposed for the multi-center diabetes prediction task. Specifically, we firstly introduce task gain to evaluate each task separately during tree construction, with a theoretical analysis of GBDT's learning objective. Secondly, we reveal a problem when directly applying GBDT in MTL, i.e., the negative task gain problem. Finally, we propose a novel split method for GBDT in MTL based on the task gain statistics, named task-wise split, as an alternative to standard feature-wise split to overcome the mentioned negative task gain problem. Extensive experiments on a large-scale real-world diabetes dataset and a commonly used benchmark dataset demonstrate TSGB achieves superior performance against several state-of-the-art methods. Detailed case studies further support our analysis of negative task gain problems and provide insightful findings. The proposed TSGB method has been deployed as an online diabetes risk assessment software for early diagnosis.
Quantum machine learning is expected to be one of the first practical applications of near-term quantum devices. Pioneer theoretical works suggest that quantum generative adversarial networks (GANs) may exhibit a potential exponential advantage over classical GANs, thus attracting widespread attention. However, it remains elusive whether quantum GANs implemented on near-term quantum devices can actually solve real-world learning tasks. Here, we devise a flexible quantum GAN scheme to narrow this knowledge gap, which could accomplish image generation with arbitrarily high-dimensional features, and could also take advantage of quantum superposition to train multiple examples in parallel. For the first time, we experimentally achieve the learning and generation of real-world hand-written digit images on a superconducting quantum processor. Moreover, we utilize a gray-scale bar dataset to exhibit the competitive performance between quantum GANs and the classical GANs based on multilayer perceptron and convolutional neural network architectures, respectively, benchmarked by the Fr\'echet Distance score. Our work provides guidance for developing advanced quantum generative models on near-term quantum devices and opens up an avenue for exploring quantum advantages in various GAN-related learning tasks.
Large-scale pre-trained models have attracted extensive attention in the research community and shown promising results on various tasks of natural language processing. However, these pre-trained models are memory and computation intensive, hindering their deployment into industrial online systems like Ad Relevance. Meanwhile, how to design an effective yet efficient model architecture is another challenging problem in online Ad Relevance. Recently, AutoML shed new lights on architecture design, but how to integrate it with pre-trained language models remains unsettled. In this paper, we propose AutoADR (Automatic model design for AD Relevance) -- a novel end-to-end framework to address this challenge, and share our experience to ship these cutting-edge techniques into online Ad Relevance system at Microsoft Bing. Specifically, AutoADR leverages a one-shot neural architecture search algorithm to find a tailored network architecture for Ad Relevance. The search process is simultaneously guided by knowledge distillation from a large pre-trained teacher model (e.g. BERT), while taking the online serving constraints (e.g. memory and latency) into consideration. We add the model designed by AutoADR as a sub-model into the production Ad Relevance model. This additional sub-model improves the Precision-Recall AUC (PR AUC) on top of the original Ad Relevance model by 2.65X of the normalized shipping bar. More importantly, adding this automatically designed sub-model leads to a statistically significant 4.6% Bad-Ad ratio reduction in online A/B testing. This model has been shipped into Microsoft Bing Ad Relevance Production model.