Despite the impressive performance in a variety of complex tasks, modern large language models (LLMs) still have trouble dealing with some math problems that are simple and intuitive for humans, such as addition. While we can easily learn basic rules of addition and apply them to new problems of any length, LLMs struggle to do the same. Instead, they may rely on similar "cases" seen in the training corpus for help. We define these two different reasoning mechanisms as "rule-based reasoning" and "case-based reasoning". Since rule-based reasoning is essential for acquiring the systematic generalization ability, we aim to explore exactly whether transformers use rule-based or case-based reasoning for math problems. Through carefully designed intervention experiments on five math tasks, we confirm that transformers are performing case-based reasoning, no matter whether scratchpad is used, which aligns with the previous observations that transformers use subgraph matching/shortcut learning to reason. To mitigate such problems, we propose a Rule-Following Fine-Tuning (RFFT) technique to teach transformers to perform rule-based reasoning. Specifically, we provide explicit rules in the input and then instruct transformers to recite and follow the rules step by step. Through RFFT, we successfully enable LLMs fine-tuned on 1-5 digit addition to generalize to up to 12-digit addition with over 95% accuracy, which is over 40% higher than scratchpad. The significant improvement demonstrates that teaching LLMs to explicitly use rules helps them learn rule-based reasoning and generalize better in length.
Knowledge editing for large language models can offer an efficient solution to alter a model's behavior without negatively impacting the overall performance. However, the current approach encounters issues with limited generalizability across tasks, necessitating one distinct editor for each task, which significantly hinders the broader applications. To address this, we take the first step to analyze the multi-task generalization issue in knowledge editing. Specifically, we develop an instruction-based editing technique, termed InstructEdit, which facilitates the editor's adaptation to various task performances simultaneously using simple instructions. With only one unified editor for each LLM, we empirically demonstrate that InstructEdit can improve the editor's control, leading to an average 14.86% increase in Reliability in multi-task editing setting. Furthermore, experiments involving holdout unseen task illustrate that InstructEdit consistently surpass previous strong baselines. To further investigate the underlying mechanisms of instruction-based knowledge editing, we analyze the principal components of the editing gradient directions, which unveils that instructions can help control optimization direction with stronger OOD generalization. Code and datasets will be available in https://github.com/zjunlp/EasyEdit.
Few-shot prompting elicits the remarkable abilities of large language models by equipping them with a few demonstration examples in the input. However, the traditional method of providing large language models with all demonstration input-output pairs at once may not effectively guide large language models to learn the specific input-output mapping relationship. In this paper, inspired by the regulatory and supportive role of metacognition in students' learning, we propose a novel metacognition-enhanced few-shot prompting, which guides large language models to reflect on their thought processes to comprehensively learn the given demonstration examples. Furthermore, considering that positive reinforcement can improve students' learning motivation, we introduce positive reinforcement into our metacognition-enhanced few-shot prompting to promote the few-shot learning of large language models by providing response-based positive feedback. The experimental results on two real-world datasets show that our metacognition-enhanced few-shot prompting with positive reinforcement surpasses traditional few-shot prompting in classification accuracy and macro F1.
Inspired by the success of the Transformer model in natural language processing and computer vision, this paper introduces BERT-PIN, a Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) powered Profile Inpainting Network. BERT-PIN recovers multiple missing data segments (MDSs) using load and temperature time-series profiles as inputs. To adopt a standard Transformer model structure for profile inpainting, we segment the load and temperature profiles into line segments, treating each segment as a word and the entire profile as a sentence. We incorporate a top candidates selection process in BERT-PIN, enabling it to produce a sequence of probability distributions, based on which users can generate multiple plausible imputed data sets, each reflecting different confidence levels. We develop and evaluate BERT-PIN using real-world dataset for two applications: multiple MDSs recovery and demand response baseline estimation. Simulation results show that BERT-PIN outperforms the existing methods in accuracy while is capable of restoring multiple MDSs within a longer window. BERT-PIN, served as a pre-trained model, can be fine-tuned for conducting many downstream tasks, such as classification and super resolution.
Internet of Things (IoT) technologies have enabled numerous data-driven mobile applications and have the potential to significantly improve environmental monitoring and hazard warnings through the deployment of a network of IoT sensors. However, these IoT devices are often power-constrained and utilize wireless communication schemes with limited bandwidth. Such power constraints limit the amount of information each device can share across the network, while bandwidth limitations hinder sensors' coordination of their transmissions. In this work, we formulate the communication planning problem of IoT sensors that track the state of the environment. We seek to optimize sensors' decisions in collecting environmental data under stringent resource constraints. We propose a multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL) method to find the optimal communication policies for each sensor that maximize the tracking accuracy subject to the power and bandwidth limitations. MARL learns and exploits the spatial-temporal correlation of the environmental data at each sensor's location to reduce the redundant reports from the sensors. Experiments on wildfire spread with LoRA wireless network simulators show that our MARL method can learn to balance the need to collect enough data to predict wildfire spread with unknown bandwidth limitations.
* To be published in the 20th Annual IEEE International Conference on
Sensing, Communication, and Networking (SECON 2023)
Despite the tremendous advances achieved over the past years by deep learning techniques, the latest risk prediction models for industrial applications still rely on highly handtuned stage-wised statistical learning tools, such as gradient boosting and random forest methods. Different from images or languages, real-world financial data are high-dimensional, sparse, noisy and extremely imbalanced, which makes deep neural network models particularly challenging to train and fragile in practice. In this work, we propose DeRisk, an effective deep learning risk prediction framework for credit risk prediction on real-world financial data. DeRisk is the first deep risk prediction model that outperforms statistical learning approaches deployed in our company's production system. We also perform extensive ablation studies on our method to present the most critical factors for the empirical success of DeRisk.
In recent years, personality has been regarded as a valuable personal factor being incorporated into numerous tasks such as sentiment analysis and product recommendation. This has led to widespread attention to text-based personality recognition task, which aims to identify an individual's personality based on given text. Considering that ChatGPT has recently exhibited remarkable abilities on various natural language processing tasks, we provide a preliminary evaluation of ChatGPT on text-based personality recognition task for generating effective personality data. Concretely, we employ a variety of prompting strategies to explore ChatGPT's ability in recognizing personality from given text, especially the level-oriented prompting strategy we designed for guiding ChatGPT in analyzing given text at a specified level. The experimental results on two representative real-world datasets reveal that ChatGPT with zero-shot chain-of-thought prompting exhibits impressive personality recognition ability and is capable to provide natural language explanations through text-based logical reasoning. Furthermore, by employing the level-oriented prompting strategy to optimize zero-shot chain-of-thought prompting, the performance gap between ChatGPT and corresponding state-of-the-art model has been narrowed even more. However, we observe that ChatGPT shows unfairness towards certain sensitive demographic attributes such as gender and age. Additionally, we discover that eliciting the personality recognition ability of ChatGPT helps improve its performance on personality-related downstream tasks such as sentiment classification and stress prediction.
Numerous pre-training techniques for visual document understanding (VDU) have recently shown substantial improvements in performance across a wide range of document tasks. However, these pre-trained VDU models cannot guarantee continued success when the distribution of test data differs from the distribution of training data. In this paper, to investigate how robust existing pre-trained VDU models are to various distribution shifts, we first develop an out-of-distribution (OOD) benchmark termed Do-GOOD for the fine-Grained analysis on Document image-related tasks specifically. The Do-GOOD benchmark defines the underlying mechanisms that result in different distribution shifts and contains 9 OOD datasets covering 3 VDU related tasks, e.g., document information extraction, classification and question answering. We then evaluate the robustness and perform a fine-grained analysis of 5 latest VDU pre-trained models and 2 typical OOD generalization algorithms on these OOD datasets. Results from the experiments demonstrate that there is a significant performance gap between the in-distribution (ID) and OOD settings for document images, and that fine-grained analysis of distribution shifts can reveal the brittle nature of existing pre-trained VDU models and OOD generalization algorithms. The code and datasets for our Do-GOOD benchmark can be found at https://github.com/MAEHCM/Do-GOOD.
Large language models (LLMs) have scaled up to unlock a wide range of complex reasoning tasks with the aid of various prompting methods. However, current prompting methods generate natural language intermediate steps to help reasoning, which can cause imperfect task reduction and confusion. To mitigate such limitations, we explore code prompting, a neural symbolic prompting method with both zero-shot and few-shot versions which triggers code as intermediate steps. We conduct experiments on 7 widely-used benchmarks involving symbolic reasoning and arithmetic reasoning. Code prompting generally outperforms chain-of-thought (CoT) prompting. To further understand the performance and limitations of code prompting, we perform extensive ablation studies and error analyses, and identify several exclusive advantages of using symbolic promptings compared to natural language. We also consider the ensemble of code prompting and CoT prompting to combine the strengths of both. Finally, we show through experiments how code annotations and their locations affect code prompting.