Summarizing a video requires a diverse understanding of the video, ranging from recognizing scenes to evaluating how much each frame is essential enough to be selected as a summary. Self-supervised learning (SSL) is acknowledged for its robustness and flexibility to multiple downstream tasks, but the video SSL has not shown its value for dense understanding tasks like video summarization. We claim an unsupervised autoencoder with sufficient self-supervised learning does not need any extra downstream architecture design or fine-tuning weights to be utilized as a video summarization model. The proposed method to evaluate the importance score of each frame takes advantage of the reconstruction score of the autoencoder's decoder. We evaluate the method in major unsupervised video summarization benchmarks to show its effectiveness under various experimental settings.
Data augmentation has recently emerged as an essential component of modern training recipes for visual recognition tasks. However, data augmentation for video recognition has been rarely explored despite its effectiveness. Few existing augmentation recipes for video recognition naively extend the image augmentation methods by applying the same operations to the whole video frames. Our main idea is that the magnitude of augmentation operations for each frame needs to be changed over time to capture the real-world video's temporal variations. These variations should be generated as diverse as possible using fewer additional hyper-parameters during training. Through this motivation, we propose a simple yet effective video data augmentation framework, DynaAugment. The magnitude of augmentation operations on each frame is changed by an effective mechanism, Fourier Sampling that parameterizes diverse, smooth, and realistic temporal variations. DynaAugment also includes an extended search space suitable for video for automatic data augmentation methods. DynaAugment experimentally demonstrates that there are additional performance rooms to be improved from static augmentations on diverse video models. Specifically, we show the effectiveness of DynaAugment on various video datasets and tasks: large-scale video recognition (Kinetics-400 and Something-Something-v2), small-scale video recognition (UCF- 101 and HMDB-51), fine-grained video recognition (Diving-48 and FineGym), video action segmentation on Breakfast, video action localization on THUMOS'14, and video object detection on MOT17Det. DynaAugment also enables video models to learn more generalized representation to improve the model robustness on the corrupted videos.
Recent self-supervised video representation learning methods focus on maximizing the similarity between multiple augmented views from the same video and largely rely on the quality of generated views. In this paper, we propose frequency augmentation (FreqAug), a spatio-temporal data augmentation method in the frequency domain for video representation learning. FreqAug stochastically removes undesirable information from the video by filtering out specific frequency components so that learned representation captures essential features of the video for various downstream tasks. Specifically, FreqAug pushes the model to focus more on dynamic features rather than static features in the video via dropping spatial or temporal low-frequency components. In other words, learning invariance between remaining frequency components results in high-frequency enhanced representation with less static bias. To verify the generality of the proposed method, we experiment with FreqAug on multiple self-supervised learning frameworks along with standard augmentations. Transferring the improved representation to five video action recognition and two temporal action localization downstream tasks shows consistent improvements over baselines.
State-of-the-art video action classifiers often suffer from overfitting. They tend to be biased towards specific objects and scene cues, rather than the foreground action content, leading to sub-optimal generalization performances. Recent data augmentation strategies have been reported to address the overfitting problems in static image classifiers. Despite the effectiveness on the static image classifiers, data augmentation has rarely been studied for videos. For the first time in the field, we systematically analyze the efficacy of various data augmentation strategies on the video classification task. We then propose a powerful augmentation strategy VideoMix. VideoMix creates a new training video by inserting a video cuboid into another video. The ground truth labels are mixed proportionally to the number of voxels from each video. We show that VideoMix lets a model learn beyond the object and scene biases and extract more robust cues for action recognition. VideoMix consistently outperforms other augmentation baselines on Kinetics and the challenging Something-Something-V2 benchmarks. It also improves the weakly-supervised action localization performance on THUMOS'14. VideoMix pretrained models exhibit improved accuracies on the video detection task (AVA).
This study presents a dynamic neural network model based on the predictive coding framework for perceiving and predicting the dynamic visuo-proprioceptive patterns. In our previous study , we have shown that the deep dynamic neural network model was able to coordinate visual perception and action generation in a seamless manner. In the current study, we extended the previous model under the predictive coding framework to endow the model with a capability of perceiving and predicting dynamic visuo-proprioceptive patterns as well as a capability of inferring intention behind the perceived visuomotor information through minimizing prediction error. A set of synthetic experiments were conducted in which a robot learned to imitate the gestures of another robot in a simulation environment. The experimental results showed that with given intention states, the model was able to mentally simulate the possible incoming dynamic visuo-proprioceptive patterns in a top-down process without the inputs from the external environment. Moreover, the results highlighted the role of minimizing prediction error in inferring underlying intention of the perceived visuo-proprioceptive patterns, supporting the predictive coding account of the mirror neuron systems. The results also revealed that minimizing prediction error in one modality induced the recall of the corresponding representation of another modality acquired during the consolidative learning of raw-level visuo-proprioceptive patterns.
The current study examines how adequate coordination among different cognitive processes including visual recognition, attention switching, action preparation and generation can be developed via learning of robots by introducing a novel model, the Visuo-Motor Deep Dynamic Neural Network (VMDNN). The proposed model is built on coupling of a dynamic vision network, a motor generation network, and a higher level network allocated on top of these two. The simulation experiments using the iCub simulator were conducted for cognitive tasks including visual object manipulation responding to human gestures. The results showed that synergetic coordination can be developed via iterative learning through the whole network when spatio-temporal hierarchy and temporal one can be self-organized in the visual pathway and in the motor pathway, respectively, such that the higher level can manipulate them with abstraction.