In this paper, we initiate the study of rate-splitting multiple access (RSMA) for a mono-static integrated sensing and communication (ISAC) system, where the dual-functional base station (BS) simultaneously communicates with multiple users and detects multiple moving targets. We aim at optimizing the ISAC waveform to jointly maximize the max-min fairness (MMF) rate of the communication users and minimize the largest eigenvalue of the Cram\'er-Rao bound (CRB) matrix for unbiased estimation. The CRB matrix considered in this work is general as it involves the estimation of angular direction, complex reflection coefficient, and Doppler frequency for multiple moving targets. Simulation results demonstrate that RSMA maintains a larger communication and sensing trade-off than conventional space-division multiple access (SDMA) and it is capable of detecting multiple targets with a high detection accuracy. The finding highlights the potential of RSMA as an effective and powerful strategy for interference management in the general multi-user multi-target ISAC systems.
Since clicks usually contain heavy noise, increasing research efforts have been devoted to modeling implicit negative user behaviors (i.e., non-clicks). However, they either rely on explicit negative user behaviors (e.g., dislikes) or simply treat non-clicks as negative feedback, failing to learn negative user interests comprehensively. In such situations, users may experience fatigue because of seeing too many similar recommendations. In this paper, we propose Fatigue-Aware Network (FAN), a novel CTR model that directly perceives user fatigue from non-clicks. Specifically, we first apply Fourier Transformation to the time series generated from non-clicks, obtaining its frequency spectrum which contains comprehensive information about user fatigue. Then the frequency spectrum is modulated by category information of the target item to model the bias that both the upper bound of fatigue and users' patience is different for different categories. Moreover, a gating network is adopted to model the confidence of user fatigue and an auxiliary task is designed to guide the learning of user fatigue, so we can obtain a well-learned fatigue representation and combine it with user interests for the final CTR prediction. Experimental results on real-world datasets validate the superiority of FAN and online A/B tests also show FAN outperforms representative CTR models significantly.
The spectrum environment map (SEM), which can visualize the information of invisible electromagnetic spectrum, is vital for monitoring, management, and security of spectrum resources in cognitive radio (CR) networks. In view of a limited number of spectrum sensors and constrained sampling time, this paper presents a new three-dimensional (3D) SEM construction scheme based on sparse Bayesian learning (SBL). Firstly, we construct a scenario-dependent channel dictionary matrix by considering the propagation characteristic of the interested scenario. To improve sampling efficiency, a maximum mutual information (MMI)-based optimization algorithm is developed for the layout of sampling sensors. Then, a maximum and minimum distance (MMD) clustering-based SBL algorithm is proposed to recover the spectrum data at the unsampled positions and construct the whole 3D SEM. We finally use the simulation data of the campus scenario to construct the 3D SEMs and compare the proposed method with the state-of-the-art. The recovery performance and the impact of different sparsity on the constructed SEMs are also analyzed. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme can reduce the required spectrum sensor number and has higher accuracy under the low sampling rate.
Reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) can significantly enhance the service coverage of Tera-Hertz massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication systems. However, obtaining accurate high-dimensional channel state information (CSI) with limited pilot and feedback signaling overhead is challenging, severely degrading the performance of conventional spatial division multiple access. To improve the robustness against CSI imperfection, this paper proposes a deep learning (DL)-based rate-splitting multiple access (RSMA) scheme for RIS-aided Tera-Hertz multi-user MIMO systems. Specifically, we first propose a hybrid data-model driven DL-based RSMA precoding scheme, including the passive precoding at the RIS as well as the analog active precoding and the RSMA digital active precoding at the base station (BS). To realize the passive precoding at the RIS, we propose a Transformer-based data-driven RIS reflecting network (RRN). As for the analog active precoding at the BS, we propose a match-filter based analog precoding scheme considering that the BS and RIS adopt the LoS-MIMO antenna array architecture. As for the RSMA digital active precoding at the BS, we propose a low-complexity approximate weighted minimum mean square error (AWMMSE) digital precoding scheme. Furthermore, for better precoding performance as well as lower computational complexity, a model-driven deep unfolding active precoding network (DFAPN) is also designed by combining the proposed AWMMSE scheme with DL. Then, to acquire accurate CSI at the BS for the investigated RSMA precoding scheme to achieve higher spectral efficiency, we propose a CSI acquisition network (CAN) with low pilot and feedback signaling overhead, where the downlink pilot transmission, CSI feedback at the user equipments (UEs), and CSI reconstruction at the BS are modeled as an end-to-end neural network based on Transformer.
* submitted to IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
With the advent of the Internet-of-Things (IoT) era, the ever-increasing number of devices and emerging applications have triggered the need for ubiquitous connectivity and more efficient computing paradigms. These stringent demands have posed significant challenges to the current wireless networks and their computing architectures. In this article, we propose a high-altitude platform (HAP) network-enabled edge computing paradigm to tackle the key issues of massive IoT connectivity. Specifically, we first provide a comprehensive overview of the recent advances in non-terrestrial network-based edge computing architectures. Then, the limitations of the existing solutions are further summarized from the perspectives of the network architecture, random access procedure, and multiple access techniques. To overcome the limitations, we propose a HAP-enabled aerial cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output network to realize the edge computing paradigm, where multiple HAPs cooperate via the edge servers to serve IoT devices. For the case of a massive number of devices, we further adopt a grant-free massive access scheme to guarantee low-latency and high-efficiency massive IoT connectivity to the network. Besides, a case study is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed solution. Finally, to shed light on the future research directions of HAP network-enabled edge computing paradigms, the key challenges and open issues are discussed.
* 8 pages, 6 figures. The current version has been accepted by IEEE
Wireless Communications Magzine Special Issue on Aerial Computing: Drones for
Multi-Access Edge Computing
Many machine learning frameworks have been proposed and used in wireless communications for realizing diverse goals. However, their incapability of adapting to the dynamic wireless environment and tasks and of self-learning limit their extensive applications and achievable performance. Inspired by the great flexibility and adaptation of primate behaviors due to the brain cognitive mechanism, a unified cognitive learning (CL) framework is proposed for the dynamic wireless environment and tasks. The mathematical framework for our proposed CL is established. Using the public and authoritative dataset, we demonstrate that our proposed CL framework has three advantages, namely, the capability of adapting to the dynamic environment and tasks, the self-learning capability and the capability of 'good money driving out bad money' by taking modulation recognition as an example. The proposed CL framework can enrich the current learning frameworks and widen the applications.
* This paper has been submitted to IEEE Wireless Communications
PoseNet can map a photo to the position where it is taken, which is appealing in robotics. However, training PoseNet requires full supervision, where ground truth positions are non-trivial to obtain. Can we train PoseNet without knowing the ground truth positions for each observation? We show that this is possible via constraint-based weak-supervision, leading to the proposed framework: DeepGPS. Particularly, using wheel-encoder-estimated distances traveled by a robot along random straight line segments as constraints between PoseNet outputs, DeepGPS can achieve a relative positioning error of less than 2%. Moreover, training DeepGPS can be done as auto-calibration with almost no human attendance, which is more attractive than its competing methods that typically require careful and expert-level manual calibration. We conduct various experiments on simulated and real datasets to demonstrate the general applicability, effectiveness, and accuracy of DeepGPS, and perform a comprehensive analysis of its robustness. Our code is available at https://ai4ce.github.io/DeepGPS/.
* 8 pages, 8 figures, submitted to IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters
(RA-L) and 2021 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and
Systems (IROS 2021)
Currently, spatiotemporal features are embraced by most deep learning approaches for human action detection in videos, however, they neglect the important features in frequency domain. In this work, we propose an end-to-end network that considers the time and frequency features simultaneously, named TFNet. TFNet holds two branches, one is time branch formed of three-dimensional convolutional neural network(3D-CNN), which takes the image sequence as input to extract time features; and the other is frequency branch, extracting frequency features through two-dimensional convolutional neural network(2D-CNN) from DCT coefficients. Finally, to obtain the action patterns, these two features are deeply fused under the attention mechanism. Experimental results on the JHMDB51-21 and UCF101-24 datasets demonstrate that our approach achieves remarkable performance for frame-mAP.