This letter focuses on a transmitter or base station (BS) side beyond-diagonal reflecting intelligent surface (BD-RIS) deployment strategy to enhance the spectral efficiency (SE) of a time-division-duplex massive multiple-input multiple-output (MaMIMO) network. In this strategy, the active antenna array utilizes a BD-RIS at the BS to serve multiple users in the downlink. Based on the knowledge of statistical channel state information (CSI), the BD-RIS coefficients matrix is optimized by employing a novel manifold algorithm, and the power control coefficients are then optimized with the objective of maximizing the minimum SE. Through numerical results we illustrate the SE performance of the proposed transmission framework and compare it with that of a conventional MaMIMO transmission for different network settings.
Beyond-diagonal reconfigurable intelligent surface (BD-RIS) has been proposed recently as a novel and generalized RIS architecture that offers enhanced wave manipulation flexibility and large coverage expansion. However, the beyond-diagonal mathematical model in BD-RIS inevitably introduces additional optimization challenges in beamforming design. In this letter, we derive a closed-form solution for the BD-RIS passive beamforming matrix that maximizes the sum of the effective channel gains among users. We further propose a computationally efficient two-stage beamforming framework to jointly design the active beamforming at the base station and passive beamforming at the BD-RIS to enhance the sum-rate for a BD-RIS aided multi-user multi-antenna network.Numerical results show that our proposed algorithm achieves a higher sum-rate while requiring less computation time compared to state-of-the-art algorithms. The proposed algorithm paves the way for practical beamforming design in BD-RIS aided wireless networks.
Future wireless networks, in particular, 5G and beyond, are anticipated to deploy dense Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites to provide global coverage and broadband connectivity with reliable data services. However, new challenges for interference management have to be tackled due to the large scale of dense LEO satellite networks. Rate-Splitting Multiple Access (RSMA), widely studied in terrestrial communication systems and Geostationary Orbit (GEO) satellite networks, has emerged as a novel, general, and powerful framework for interference management and multiple access strategies for future wireless networks. In this paper, we propose a multilayer interference management scheme for spectrum sharing in heterogeneous GEO and LEO satellite networks, where RSMA is implemented distributedly at GEO and LEO satellites, namely Distributed-RSMA (D-RSMA), to mitigate the interference and boost the user fairness of the system. We study the problem of jointly optimizing the GEO/LEO precoders and message splits to maximize the minimum rate among User Terminals (UTs) subject to a transmit power constraint at all satellites. A Semi-Definite Programming (SDP)-based algorithm is proposed to solve the original non-convex optimization problem. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness and network load robustness of our proposed D-RSMA scheme for multilayer satellite networks. Because of the data sharing and the interference management capability, D-RSMA provides significant max-min fairness performance gains when compared to several benchmark schemes.
In this paper, we initiate the study of rate-splitting multiple access (RSMA) for a mono-static integrated sensing and communication (ISAC) system, where the dual-functional base station (BS) simultaneously communicates with multiple users and detects multiple moving targets. We aim at optimizing the ISAC waveform to jointly maximize the max-min fairness (MMF) rate of the communication users and minimize the largest eigenvalue of the Cram\'er-Rao bound (CRB) matrix for unbiased estimation. The CRB matrix considered in this work is general as it involves the estimation of angular direction, complex reflection coefficient, and Doppler frequency for multiple moving targets. Simulation results demonstrate that RSMA maintains a larger communication and sensing trade-off than conventional space-division multiple access (SDMA) and it is capable of detecting multiple targets with a high detection accuracy. The finding highlights the potential of RSMA as an effective and powerful strategy for interference management in the general multi-user multi-target ISAC systems.
Vertical federated learning (FL) is a collaborative machine learning framework that enables devices to learn a global model from the feature-partition datasets without sharing local raw data. However, as the number of the local intermediate outputs is proportional to the training samples, it is critical to develop communication-efficient techniques for wireless vertical FL to support high-dimensional model aggregation with full device participation. In this paper, we propose a novel cloud radio access network (Cloud-RAN) based vertical FL system to enable fast and accurate model aggregation by leveraging over-the-air computation (AirComp) and alleviating communication straggler issue with cooperative model aggregation among geographically distributed edge servers. However, the model aggregation error caused by AirComp and quantization errors caused by the limited fronthaul capacity degrade the learning performance for vertical FL. To address these issues, we characterize the convergence behavior of the vertical FL algorithm considering both uplink and downlink transmissions. To improve the learning performance, we establish a system optimization framework by joint transceiver and fronthaul quantization design, for which successive convex approximation and alternate convex search based system optimization algorithms are developed. We conduct extensive simulations to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system architecture and optimization framework for vertical FL.
In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient federated learning (FL) framework for the energy-constrained devices over cloud radio access network (Cloud-RAN), where each device adopts quantized neural networks (QNNs) to train a local FL model and transmits the quantized model parameter to the remote radio heads (RRHs). Each RRH receives the signals from devices over the wireless link and forwards the signals to the server via the fronthaul link. We rigorously develop an energy consumption model for the local training at devices through the use of QNNs and communication models over Cloud-RAN. Based on the proposed energy consumption model, we formulate an energy minimization problem that optimizes the fronthaul rate allocation, user transmit power allocation, and QNN precision levels while satisfying the limited fronthaul capacity constraint and ensuring the convergence of the proposed FL model to a target accuracy. To solve this problem, we analyze the convergence rate and propose efficient algorithms based on the alternative optimization technique. Simulation results show that the proposed FL framework can significantly reduce energy consumption compared to other conventional approaches. We draw the conclusion that the proposed framework holds great potential for achieving a sustainable and environmentally-friendly FL in Cloud-RAN.
Rate-splitting multiple access (RSMA) and reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) have been both recognized as promising techniques for 6G. The benefits of combining the two techniques to enhance the spectral and energy efficiency have been recently exploited in communication-only networks. Inspired by the recent advances on RIS empowered RSMA, in this work we investigate the use of RIS empowered RSMA for simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) with one transmitter concurrently sending information to multiple information receivers (IRs) and transferring energy to multiple energy receivers (ERs). Specifically, we jointly optimize the transmit beamformers and the RIS reflection coefficients to maximize the weighted sum-rate (WSR) of IRs under the harvested energy constraint of ERs and the transmit power constraint. An alternating optimization and successive convex approximation (SCA)-based optimization framework is then proposed to solve the problem. Numerical results show that by marrying the benefits of RSMA and RIS, the proposed RIS empowered RSMA achieves a better tradeoff between the WSR of IRs and energy harvested at ERs. Therefore, we conclude that RIS empowered RSMA is a promising strategy for SWIPT.
Rate-Splitting Multiple Access (RSMA) has emerged as a flexible and powerful framework for wireless networks. In this paper, we investigate the user fairness of downlink multi-antenna RSMA in short-packet communications with/without cooperative (user-relaying) transmission. We design optimal time allocation and linear precoders that maximize the Max-Min Fairness (MMF) rate with Finite Blocklength (FBL) constraints. The relation between the MMF rate and blocklength of RSMA, as well as the impact of cooperative transmission are investigated for a wide range of network loads. Numerical results demonstrate that RSMA can achieve the same MMF rate as Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) and Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) with smaller blocklengths (and therefore lower latency), especially in cooperative transmission deployment. Hence, we conclude that RSMA is a promising multiple access for guaranteeing user fairness in low-latency communications.
Reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) has emerged as a cost-effective and energy-efficient technique for 6G. By adjusting the phase shifts of passive reflecting elements, RIS is capable of suppressing the interference and combining the desired signals constructively at receivers, thereby significantly enhancing the performance of communication In this paper, we consider a green multi-user multi-antenna cellular network, where multiple RISs are deployed to provide energy-efficient communication service to end users. We jointly optimize the phase shifts of RISs, beamforming of the base stations, and the active RIS set with the aim of minimizing the power consumption of the base station (BS) and RISs subject to the quality of service (QoS) constraints of users and the transmit power constraint of the BS. However, the problem is mixed combinatorial and nonconvex, and there is a potential infeasibility issue when the QoS constraints cannot be guaranteed by all users. To deal with the infeasibility issue, we further investigate a user admission control problem to jointly optimize the transmit beamforming, RIS phase shifts, and the admitted user set. A unified alternating optimization (AO) framework is then proposed to solve both the power minimization and user admission control problems. Specifically, we first decompose the original nonconvex problem into several rank-one constrained optimization subproblems via matrix lifting. The proposed AO framework efficiently minimizes the power consumption of wireless networks as well as user admission control when the QoS constraints cannot be guaranteed by all users. Compared with the baseline algorithms, we illustrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve lower power consumption for given QoS constraints. Most importantly, the proposed algorithm successfully addresses the infeasibility issue with a QoS guarantee for active users.
Massive MIMO (MaMIMO) has become an integral part of the 5G standard, and is envisioned to be further developed in beyond 5G networks. With a massive number of antennas at the base station (BS), MaMIMO is best equipped to cater prominent use cases of B5G networks such as enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), ultra-reliable low-latency communications (URLLC) and massive machine-type communications (mMTC) or combinations thereof. However, one of the critical challenges to this pursuit is the sporadic access behaviour of the massive number of devices in practical networks that inevitably leads to the conspicuous pilot contamination problem. Conventional linearly precoded physical layer strategies employed for downlink transmission in time division duplex (TDD) MaMIMO would incur a noticeable spectral efficiency (SE) loss in the presence of this pilot contamination. In this paper, we aim to integrate a robust multiple access and interference management strategy named rate-splitting multiple access (RSMA) with TDD MaMIMO for downlink transmission and investigate its SE performance. We propose a novel downlink transmission framework of RSMA in TDD MaMIMO, devise a precoder design strategy and power allocation schemes to maximize different network utility functions. Numerical results reveal that RSMA is significantly more robust to pilot contamination and always achieves a SE performance that is equal to or better than the conventional linearly precoded MaMIMO transmission strategy.