Recently, the fast development of Large Language Models (LLMs) such as ChatGPT has significantly advanced NLP tasks by enhancing the capabilities of conversational models. However, the application of LLMs in the recommendation domain has not been thoroughly investigated. To bridge this gap, we propose LLMRec, a LLM-based recommender system designed for benchmarking LLMs on various recommendation tasks. Specifically, we benchmark several popular off-the-shelf LLMs, such as ChatGPT, LLaMA, ChatGLM, on five recommendation tasks, including rating prediction, sequential recommendation, direct recommendation, explanation generation, and review summarization. Furthermore, we investigate the effectiveness of supervised finetuning to improve LLMs' instruction compliance ability. The benchmark results indicate that LLMs displayed only moderate proficiency in accuracy-based tasks such as sequential and direct recommendation. However, they demonstrated comparable performance to state-of-the-art methods in explainability-based tasks. We also conduct qualitative evaluations to further evaluate the quality of contents generated by different models, and the results show that LLMs can truly understand the provided information and generate clearer and more reasonable results. We aspire that this benchmark will serve as an inspiration for researchers to delve deeper into the potential of LLMs in enhancing recommendation performance. Our codes, processed data and benchmark results are available at https://github.com/williamliujl/LLMRec.
Transformer-based sequential recommendation (SR) has been booming in recent years, with the self-attention mechanism as its key component. Self-attention has been widely believed to be able to effectively select those informative and relevant items from a sequence of interacted items for next-item prediction via learning larger attention weights for these items. However, this may not always be true in reality. Our empirical analysis of some representative Transformer-based SR models reveals that it is not uncommon for large attention weights to be assigned to less relevant items, which can result in inaccurate recommendations. Through further in-depth analysis, we find two factors that may contribute to such inaccurate assignment of attention weights: sub-optimal position encoding and noisy input. To this end, in this paper, we aim to address this significant yet challenging gap in existing works. To be specific, we propose a simple yet effective framework called Attention Calibration for Transformer-based Sequential Recommendation (AC-TSR). In AC-TSR, a novel spatial calibrator and adversarial calibrator are designed respectively to directly calibrates those incorrectly assigned attention weights. The former is devised to explicitly capture the spatial relationships (i.e., order and distance) among items for more precise calculation of attention weights. The latter aims to redistribute the attention weights based on each item's contribution to the next-item prediction. AC-TSR is readily adaptable and can be seamlessly integrated into various existing transformer-based SR models. Extensive experimental results on four benchmark real-world datasets demonstrate the superiority of our proposed ACTSR via significant recommendation performance enhancements. The source code is available at https://github.com/AIM-SE/AC-TSR.
Abstractive related work generation has attracted increasing attention in generating coherent related work that better helps readers grasp the background in the current research. However, most existing abstractive models ignore the inherent causality of related work generation, leading to low quality of generated related work and spurious correlations that affect the models' generalizability. In this study, we argue that causal intervention can address these limitations and improve the quality and coherence of the generated related works. To this end, we propose a novel Causal Intervention Module for Related Work Generation (CaM) to effectively capture causalities in the generation process and improve the quality and coherence of the generated related works. Specifically, we first model the relations among sentence order, document relation, and transitional content in related work generation using a causal graph. Then, to implement the causal intervention and mitigate the negative impact of spurious correlations, we use do-calculus to derive ordinary conditional probabilities and identify causal effects through CaM. Finally, we subtly fuse CaM with Transformer to obtain an end-to-end generation model. Extensive experiments on two real-world datasets show that causal interventions in CaM can effectively promote the model to learn causal relations and produce related work of higher quality and coherence.
The rapid growth of social media has caused tremendous effects on information propagation, raising extreme challenges in detecting rumors. Existing rumor detection methods typically exploit the reposting propagation of a rumor candidate for detection by regarding all reposts to a rumor candidate as a temporal sequence and learning semantics representations of the repost sequence. However, extracting informative support from the topological structure of propagation and the influence of reposting authors for debunking rumors is crucial, which generally has not been well addressed by existing methods. In this paper, we organize a claim post in circulation as an adhoc event tree, extract event elements, and convert it to bipartite adhoc event trees in terms of both posts and authors, i.e., author tree and post tree. Accordingly, we propose a novel rumor detection model with hierarchical representation on the bipartite adhoc event trees called BAET. Specifically, we introduce word embedding and feature encoder for the author and post tree, respectively, and design a root-aware attention module to perform node representation. Then we adopt the tree-like RNN model to capture the structural correlations and propose a tree-aware attention module to learn tree representation for the author tree and post tree, respectively. Extensive experimental results on two public Twitter datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of BAET in exploring and exploiting the rumor propagation structure and the superior detection performance of BAET over state-of-the-art baseline methods.
By summarizing longer consumer health questions into shorter and essential ones, medical question answering (MQA) systems can more accurately understand consumer intentions and retrieve suitable answers. However, medical question summarization is very challenging due to obvious distinctions in health trouble descriptions from patients and doctors. Although existing works have attempted to utilize Seq2Seq, reinforcement learning, or contrastive learning to solve the problem, two challenges remain: how to correctly capture question focus to model its semantic intention, and how to obtain reliable datasets to fairly evaluate performance. To address these challenges, this paper proposes a novel medical question summarization framework using entity-driven contrastive learning (ECL). ECL employs medical entities in frequently asked questions (FAQs) as focuses and devises an effective mechanism to generate hard negative samples. This approach forces models to pay attention to the crucial focus information and generate more ideal question summarization. Additionally, we find that some MQA datasets suffer from serious data leakage problems, such as the iCliniq dataset's 33% duplicate rate. To evaluate the related methods fairly, this paper carefully checks leaked samples to reorganize more reasonable datasets. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our ECL method outperforms state-of-the-art methods by accurately capturing question focus and generating medical question summaries. The code and datasets are available at https://github.com/yrbobo/MQS-ECL.
Most session-based recommender systems (SBRSs) focus on extracting information from the observed items in the current session of a user to predict a next item, ignoring the causes outside the session (called outer-session causes, OSCs) that influence the user's selection of items. However, these causes widely exist in the real world, and few studies have investigated their role in SBRSs. In this work, we analyze the causalities and correlations of the OSCs in SBRSs from the perspective of causal inference. We find that the OSCs are essentially the confounders in SBRSs, which leads to spurious correlations in the data used to train SBRS models. To address this problem, we propose a novel SBRS framework named COCO-SBRS (COunterfactual COllaborative Session-Based Recommender Systems) to learn the causality between OSCs and user-item interactions in SBRSs. COCO-SBRS first adopts a self-supervised approach to pre-train a recommendation model by designing pseudo-labels of causes for each user's selection of the item in data to guide the training process. Next, COCO-SBRS adopts counterfactual inference to recommend items based on the outputs of the pre-trained recommendation model considering the causalities to alleviate the data sparsity problem. As a result, COCO-SBRS can learn the causalities in data, preventing the model from learning spurious correlations. The experimental results of our extensive experiments conducted on three real-world datasets demonstrate the superiority of our proposed framework over ten representative SBRSs.
Recently, Fourier transform has been widely introduced into deep neural networks to further advance the state-of-the-art regarding both accuracy and efficiency of time series analysis. The advantages of the Fourier transform for time series analysis, such as efficiency and global view, have been rapidly explored and exploited, exhibiting a promising deep learning paradigm for time series analysis. However, although increasing attention has been attracted and research is flourishing in this emerging area, there lacks a systematic review of the variety of existing studies in the area. To this end, in this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of studies on neural time series analysis with Fourier transform. We aim to systematically investigate and summarize the latest research progress. Accordingly, we propose a novel taxonomy to categorize existing neural time series analysis methods from four perspectives, including characteristics, usage paradigms, network design, and applications. We also share some new research directions in this vibrant area.
Multivariate time series (MTS) forecasting has penetrated and benefited our daily life. However, the unfair forecasting of MTSs not only degrades their practical benefit but even brings about serious potential risk. Such unfair MTS forecasting may be attributed to variable disparity leading to advantaged and disadvantaged variables. This issue has rarely been studied in the existing MTS forecasting models. To address this significant gap, we formulate the MTS fairness modeling problem as learning informative representations attending to both advantaged and disadvantaged variables. Accordingly, we propose a novel framework, named FairFor, for fairness-aware MTS forecasting. FairFor is based on adversarial learning to generate both group-irrelevant and -relevant representations for the downstream forecasting. FairFor first adopts the recurrent graph convolution to capture spatio-temporal variable correlations and to group variables by leveraging a spectral relaxation of the K-means objective. Then, it utilizes a novel filtering & fusion module to filter the group-relevant information and generate group-irrelevant representations by orthogonality regularization. The group-irrelevant and -relevant representations form highly informative representations, facilitating to share the knowledge from advantaged variables to disadvantaged variables and guarantee fairness. Extensive experiments on four public datasets demonstrate the FairFor effectiveness for fair forecasting and significant performance improvement.
Next basket recommender systems (NBRs) aim to recommend a user's next (shopping) basket of items via modeling the user's preferences towards items based on the user's purchase history, usually a sequence of historical baskets. Due to its wide applicability in the real-world E-commerce industry, the studies NBR have attracted increasing attention in recent years. NBRs have been widely studied and much progress has been achieved in this area with a variety of NBR approaches having been proposed. However, an important issue is that there is a lack of a systematic and unified evaluation over the various NBR approaches. Different studies often evaluate NBR approaches on different datasets, under different experimental settings, making it hard to fairly and effectively compare the performance of different NBR approaches. To bridge this gap, in this work, we conduct a systematical empirical study in NBR area. Specifically, we review the representative work in NBR and analyze their cons and pros. Then, we run the selected NBR algorithms on the same datasets, under the same experimental setting and evaluate their performances using the same measurements. This provides a unified framework to fairly compare different NBR approaches. We hope this study can provide a valuable reference for the future research in this vibrant area.