Spatiotemporal data analysis is pivotal across various domains, including transportation, meteorology, and healthcare. However, the data collected in real-world scenarios often suffers incompleteness due to sensor malfunctions and network transmission errors. Spatiotemporal imputation endeavours to predict missing values by exploiting the inherent spatial and temporal dependencies present in the observed data. Traditional approaches, which rely on classical statistical and machine learning techniques, are often inadequate, particularly when the data fails to meet strict distributional assumptions. In contrast, recent deep learning-based methods, leveraging graph and recurrent neural networks, have demonstrated enhanced efficacy. Nonetheless, these approaches are prone to error accumulation. Generative models have been increasingly adopted to circumvent the reliance on potentially inaccurate historical imputed values for future predictions. These models grapple with the challenge of producing unstable results, a particular issue in diffusion-based models. We aim to address these challenges by designing conditional features to guide the generative process and expedite training. Specifically, we introduce C$^2$TSD, a novel approach incorporating trend and seasonal information as conditional features and employing contrastive learning to improve model generalizability. The extensive experiments on three real-world datasets demonstrate the superior performance of C$^2$TSD over various state-of-the-art baselines.
Trajectory prediction is fundamental to various intelligent technologies, such as autonomous driving and robotics. The motion prediction of pedestrians and vehicles helps emergency braking, reduces collisions, and improves traffic safety. Current trajectory prediction research faces problems of complex social interactions, high dynamics and multi-modality. Especially, it still has limitations in long-time prediction. We propose Attention-aware Social Graph Transformer Networks for multi-modal trajectory prediction. We combine Graph Convolutional Networks and Transformer Networks by generating stable resolution pseudo-images from Spatio-temporal graphs through a designed stacking and interception method. Furthermore, we design the attention-aware module to handle social interaction information in scenarios involving mixed pedestrian-vehicle traffic. Thus, we maintain the advantages of the Graph and Transformer, i.e., the ability to aggregate information over an arbitrary number of neighbors and the ability to perform complex time-dependent data processing. We conduct experiments on datasets involving pedestrian, vehicle, and mixed trajectories, respectively. Our results demonstrate that our model minimizes displacement errors across various metrics and significantly reduces the likelihood of collisions. It is worth noting that our model effectively reduces the final displacement error, illustrating the ability of our model to predict for a long time.
The analysis of spatiotemporal data is increasingly utilized across diverse domains, including transportation, healthcare, and meteorology. In real-world settings, such data often contain missing elements due to issues like sensor malfunctions and data transmission errors. The objective of spatiotemporal imputation is to estimate these missing values by understanding the inherent spatial and temporal relationships in the observed multivariate time series. Traditionally, spatiotemporal imputation has relied on specific, intricate architectures designed for this purpose, which suffer from limited applicability and high computational complexity. In contrast, our approach integrates pre-trained large language models (LLMs) into spatiotemporal imputation, introducing a groundbreaking framework, GATGPT. This framework merges a graph attention mechanism with LLMs. We maintain most of the LLM parameters unchanged to leverage existing knowledge for learning temporal patterns, while fine-tuning the upper layers tailored to various applications. The graph attention component enhances the LLM's ability to understand spatial relationships. Through tests on three distinct real-world datasets, our innovative approach demonstrates comparable results to established deep learning benchmarks.
Adversarial attacks, e.g., adversarial perturbations of the input and adversarial samples, pose significant challenges to machine learning and deep learning techniques, including interactive recommendation systems. The latent embedding space of those techniques makes adversarial attacks difficult to detect at an early stage. Recent advance in causality shows that counterfactual can also be considered one of ways to generate the adversarial samples drawn from different distribution as the training samples. We propose to explore adversarial examples and attack agnostic detection on reinforcement learning-based interactive recommendation systems. We first craft different types of adversarial examples by adding perturbations to the input and intervening on the casual factors. Then, we augment recommendation systems by detecting potential attacks with a deep learning-based classifier based on the crafted data. Finally, we study the attack strength and frequency of adversarial examples and evaluate our model on standard datasets with multiple crafting methods. Our extensive experiments show that most adversarial attacks are effective, and both attack strength and attack frequency impact the attack performance. The strategically-timed attack achieves comparative attack performance with only 1/3 to 1/2 attack frequency. Besides, our black-box detector trained with one crafting method has the generalization ability over several other crafting methods.
* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2006.07934
Zero-Shot Learning (ZSL) aims to transfer learned knowledge from observed classes to unseen classes via semantic correlations. A promising strategy is to learn a global-local representation that incorporates global information with extra localities (i.e., small parts/regions of inputs). However, existing methods discover localities based on explicit features without digging into the inherent properties and relationships among regions. In this work, we propose a novel Entropy-guided Reinforced Partial Convolutional Network (ERPCNet), which extracts and aggregates localities progressively based on semantic relevance and visual correlations without human-annotated regions. ERPCNet uses reinforced partial convolution and entropy guidance; it not only discovers global-cooperative localities dynamically but also converges faster for policy gradient optimization. We conduct extensive experiments to demonstrate ERPCNet's performance through comparisons with state-of-the-art methods under ZSL and Generalized Zero-Shot Learning (GZSL) settings on four benchmark datasets. We also show ERPCNet is time efficient and explainable through visualization analysis.
Online recommendation requires handling rapidly changing user preferences. Deep reinforcement learning (DRL) is gaining interest as an effective means of capturing users' dynamic interest during interactions with recommender systems. However, it is challenging to train a DRL agent, due to large state space (e.g., user-item rating matrix and user profiles), action space (e.g., candidate items), and sparse rewards. Existing studies encourage the agent to learn from past experience via experience replay (ER). They adapt poorly to the complex environment of online recommender systems and are inefficient in determining an optimal strategy from past experience. To address these issues, we design a novel state-aware experience replay model, which uses locality-sensitive hashing to map high dimensional data into low-dimensional representations and a prioritized reward-driven strategy to replay more valuable experience at a higher chance. Our model can selectively pick the most relevant and salient experiences and recommend the agent with the optimal policy. Experiments on three online simulation platforms demonstrate our model' feasibility and superiority toseveral existing experience replay methods.
In light of the emergence of deep reinforcement learning (DRL) in recommender systems research and several fruitful results in recent years, this survey aims to provide a timely and comprehensive overview of the recent trends of deep reinforcement learning in recommender systems. We start with the motivation of applying DRL in recommender systems. Then, we provide a taxonomy of current DRL-based recommender systems and a summary of existing methods. We discuss emerging topics and open issues, and provide our perspective on advancing the domain. This survey serves as introductory material for readers from academia and industry into the topic and identifies notable opportunities for further research.
The ability to deal with uncertainty in machine learning models has become equally, if not more, crucial to their predictive ability itself. For instance, during the pandemic, governmental policies and personal decisions are constantly made around uncertainties. Targeting this, Neural Process Families (NPFs) have recently shone a light on prediction with uncertainties by bridging Gaussian processes and neural networks. Latent neural process, a member of NPF, is believed to be capable of modelling the uncertainty on certain points (local uncertainty) as well as the general function priors (global uncertainties). Nonetheless, some critical questions remain unresolved, such as a formal definition of global uncertainties, the causality behind global uncertainties, and the manipulation of global uncertainties for generative models. Regarding this, we build a member GloBal Convolutional Neural Process(GBCoNP) that achieves the SOTA log-likelihood in latent NPFs. It designs a global uncertainty representation p(z), which is an aggregation on a discretized input space. The causal effect between the degree of global uncertainty and the intra-task diversity is discussed. The learnt prior is analyzed on a variety of scenarios, including 1D, 2D, and a newly proposed spatial-temporal COVID dataset. Our manipulation of the global uncertainty not only achieves generating the desired samples to tackle few-shot learning, but also enables the probability evaluation on the functional priors.
Federated learning (FL) can protect data privacy in distributed learning since it merely collects local gradients from users without access to their data. However, FL is fragile in the presence of heterogeneity that is commonly encountered in practical settings, e.g., non-IID data over different users. Existing FL approaches usually update a single global model to capture the shared knowledge of all users by aggregating their gradients, regardless of the discrepancy between their data distributions. By comparison, a mixture of multiple global models could capture the heterogeneity across various users if assigning the users to different global models (i.e., centers) in FL. To this end, we propose a novel multi-center aggregation mechanism . It learns multiple global models from data, and simultaneously derives the optimal matching between users and centers. We then formulate it as a bi-level optimization problem that can be efficiently solved by a stochastic expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. Experiments on multiple benchmark datasets of FL show that our method outperforms several popular FL competitors. The source code are open source on Github.
* It should be a replacement of an existing paper in the link.