Resistive Random Access Memory (ReRAM) has emerged as a promising platform for deep neural networks (DNNs) due to its support for parallel in-situ matrix-vector multiplication. However, hardware failures, such as stuck-at-fault defects, can result in significant prediction errors during model inference. While additional crossbars can be used to address these failures, they come with storage overhead and are not efficient in terms of space, energy, and cost. In this paper, we propose a fault protection mechanism that incurs zero space cost. Our approach includes: 1) differentiable structure pruning of rows and columns to reduce model redundancy, 2) weight duplication and voting for robust output, and 3) embedding duplicated most significant bits (MSBs) into the model weight. We evaluate our method on nine tasks of the GLUE benchmark with the BERT model, and experimental results prove its effectiveness.
In the acceleration of deep neural network training, the GPU has become the mainstream platform. GPUs face substantial challenges on GNNs, such as workload imbalance and memory access irregularities, leading to underutilized hardware. Existing solutions such as PyG, DGL with cuSPARSE, and GNNAdvisor frameworks partially address these challenges but memory traffic is still significant. We argue that drastic performance improvements can only be achieved by the vertical optimization of algorithm and system innovations, rather than treating the speedup optimization as an "after-thought" (i.e., (i) given a GNN algorithm, designing an accelerator, or (ii) given hardware, mainly optimizing the GNN algorithm). In this paper, we present MaxK-GNN, an advanced high-performance GPU training system integrating algorithm and system innovation. (i) We introduce the MaxK nonlinearity and provide a theoretical analysis of MaxK nonlinearity as a universal approximator, and present the Compressed Balanced Sparse Row (CBSR) format, designed to store the data and index of the feature matrix after nonlinearity; (ii) We design a coalescing enhanced forward computation with row-wise product-based SpGEMM Kernel using CBSR for input feature matrix fetching and strategic placement of a sparse output accumulation buffer in shared memory; (iii) We develop an optimized backward computation with outer product-based and SSpMM Kernel. We conduct extensive evaluations of MaxK-GNN and report the end-to-end system run-time. Experiments show that MaxK-GNN system could approach the theoretical speedup limit according to Amdahl's law. We achieve comparable accuracy to SOTA GNNs, but at a significantly increased speed: 3.22/4.24 times speedup (vs. theoretical limits, 5.52/7.27 times) on Reddit compared to DGL and GNNAdvisor implementations.
The growth of Graph Convolution Network (GCN) model sizes has revolutionized numerous applications, surpassing human performance in areas such as personal healthcare and financial systems. The deployment of GCNs in the cloud raises privacy concerns due to potential adversarial attacks on client data. To address security concerns, Privacy-Preserving Machine Learning (PPML) using Homomorphic Encryption (HE) secures sensitive client data. However, it introduces substantial computational overhead in practical applications. To tackle those challenges, we present LinGCN, a framework designed to reduce multiplication depth and optimize the performance of HE based GCN inference. LinGCN is structured around three key elements: (1) A differentiable structural linearization algorithm, complemented by a parameterized discrete indicator function, co-trained with model weights to meet the optimization goal. This strategy promotes fine-grained node-level non-linear location selection, resulting in a model with minimized multiplication depth. (2) A compact node-wise polynomial replacement policy with a second-order trainable activation function, steered towards superior convergence by a two-level distillation approach from an all-ReLU based teacher model. (3) an enhanced HE solution that enables finer-grained operator fusion for node-wise activation functions, further reducing multiplication level consumption in HE-based inference. Our experiments on the NTU-XVIEW skeleton joint dataset reveal that LinGCN excels in latency, accuracy, and scalability for homomorphically encrypted inference, outperforming solutions such as CryptoGCN. Remarkably, LinGCN achieves a 14.2x latency speedup relative to CryptoGCN, while preserving an inference accuracy of 75% and notably reducing multiplication depth.
Graph Convolutional Networks (GCNs) are pivotal in extracting latent information from graph data across various domains, yet their acceleration on mainstream GPUs is challenged by workload imbalance and memory access irregularity. To address these challenges, we present Accel-GCN, a GPU accelerator architecture for GCNs. The design of Accel-GCN encompasses: (i) a lightweight degree sorting stage to group nodes with similar degree; (ii) a block-level partition strategy that dynamically adjusts warp workload sizes, enhancing shared memory locality and workload balance, and reducing metadata overhead compared to designs like GNNAdvisor; (iii) a combined warp strategy that improves memory coalescing and computational parallelism in the column dimension of dense matrices. Utilizing these principles, we formulated a kernel for sparse matrix multiplication (SpMM) in GCNs that employs block-level partitioning and combined warp strategy. This approach augments performance and multi-level memory efficiency and optimizes memory bandwidth by exploiting memory coalescing and alignment. Evaluation of Accel-GCN across 18 benchmark graphs reveals that it outperforms cuSPARSE, GNNAdvisor, and graph-BLAST by factors of 1.17 times, 1.86 times, and 2.94 times respectively. The results underscore Accel-GCN as an effective solution for enhancing GCN computational efficiency.
The growth of the Machine-Learning-As-A-Service (MLaaS) market has highlighted clients' data privacy and security issues. Private inference (PI) techniques using cryptographic primitives offer a solution but often have high computation and communication costs, particularly with non-linear operators like ReLU. Many attempts to reduce ReLU operations exist, but they may need heuristic threshold selection or cause substantial accuracy loss. This work introduces AutoReP, a gradient-based approach to lessen non-linear operators and alleviate these issues. It automates the selection of ReLU and polynomial functions to speed up PI applications and introduces distribution-aware polynomial approximation (DaPa) to maintain model expressivity while accurately approximating ReLUs. Our experimental results demonstrate significant accuracy improvements of 6.12% (94.31%, 12.9K ReLU budget, CIFAR-10), 8.39% (74.92%, 12.9K ReLU budget, CIFAR-100), and 9.45% (63.69%, 55K ReLU budget, Tiny-ImageNet) over current state-of-the-art methods, e.g., SNL. Morever, AutoReP is applied to EfficientNet-B2 on ImageNet dataset, and achieved 75.55% accuracy with 176.1 times ReLU budget reduction.
Biologically inspired Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) have attracted significant attention for their ability to provide extremely energy-efficient machine intelligence through event-driven operation and sparse activities. As artificial intelligence (AI) becomes ever more democratized, there is an increasing need to execute SNN models on edge devices. Existing works adopt weight pruning to reduce SNN model size and accelerate inference. However, these methods mainly focus on how to obtain a sparse model for efficient inference, rather than training efficiency. To overcome these drawbacks, in this paper, we propose a Neurogenesis Dynamics-inspired Spiking Neural Network training acceleration framework, NDSNN. Our framework is computational efficient and trains a model from scratch with dynamic sparsity without sacrificing model fidelity. Specifically, we design a new drop-and-grow strategy with decreasing number of non-zero weights, to maintain extreme high sparsity and high accuracy. We evaluate NDSNN using VGG-16 and ResNet-19 on CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100 and TinyImageNet. Experimental results show that NDSNN achieves up to 20.52\% improvement in accuracy on Tiny-ImageNet using ResNet-19 (with a sparsity of 99\%) as compared to other SOTA methods (e.g., Lottery Ticket Hypothesis (LTH), SET-SNN, RigL-SNN). In addition, the training cost of NDSNN is only 40.89\% of the LTH training cost on ResNet-19 and 31.35\% of the LTH training cost on VGG-16 on CIFAR-10.
The proliferation of deep learning (DL) has led to the emergence of privacy and security concerns. To address these issues, secure Two-party computation (2PC) has been proposed as a means of enabling privacy-preserving DL computation. However, in practice, 2PC methods often incur high computation and communication overhead, which can impede their use in large-scale systems. To address this challenge, we introduce RRNet, a systematic framework that aims to jointly reduce the overhead of MPC comparison protocols and accelerate computation through hardware acceleration. Our approach integrates the hardware latency of cryptographic building blocks into the DNN loss function, resulting in improved energy efficiency, accuracy, and security guarantees. Furthermore, we propose a cryptographic hardware scheduler and corresponding performance model for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to further enhance the efficiency of our framework. Experiments show RRNet achieved a much higher ReLU reduction performance than all SOTA works on CIFAR-10 dataset.
* This is work is a updated version of arXiv:2209.09424, the original
version has been withdrawn
Over-parameterization of deep neural networks (DNNs) has shown high prediction accuracy for many applications. Although effective, the large number of parameters hinders its popularity on resource-limited devices and has an outsize environmental impact. Sparse training (using a fixed number of nonzero weights in each iteration) could significantly mitigate the training costs by reducing the model size. However, existing sparse training methods mainly use either random-based or greedy-based drop-and-grow strategies, resulting in local minimal and low accuracy. In this work, we consider the dynamic sparse training as a sparse connectivity search problem and design an exploitation and exploration acquisition function to escape from local optima and saddle points. We further design an acquisition function and provide the theoretical guarantees for the proposed method and clarify its convergence property. Experimental results show that sparse models (up to 98\% sparsity) obtained by our proposed method outperform the SOTA sparse training methods on a wide variety of deep learning tasks. On VGG-19 / CIFAR-100, ResNet-50 / CIFAR-10, ResNet-50 / CIFAR-100, our method has even higher accuracy than dense models. On ResNet-50 / ImageNet, the proposed method has up to 8.2\% accuracy improvement compared to SOTA sparse training methods.
Over-parameterization of deep neural networks (DNNs) has shown high prediction accuracy for many applications. Although effective, the large number of parameters hinders its popularity on resource-limited devices and has an outsize environmental impact. Sparse training (using a fixed number of nonzero weights in each iteration) could significantly mitigate the training costs by reducing the model size. However, existing sparse training methods mainly use either random-based or greedy-based drop-and-grow strategies, resulting in local minimal and low accuracy. In this work, to assist explainable sparse training, we propose important weights Exploitation and coverage Exploration to characterize Dynamic Sparse Training (DST-EE), and provide quantitative analysis of these two metrics. We further design an acquisition function and provide the theoretical guarantees for the proposed method and clarify its convergence property. Experimental results show that sparse models (up to 98\% sparsity) obtained by our proposed method outperform the SOTA sparse training methods on a wide variety of deep learning tasks. On VGG-19 / CIFAR-100, ResNet-50 / CIFAR-10, ResNet-50 / CIFAR-100, our method has even higher accuracy than dense models. On ResNet-50 / ImageNet, the proposed method has up to 8.2\% accuracy improvement compared to SOTA sparse training methods.