There has been a proliferation of artificial intelligence applications, where model training is key to promising high-quality services for these applications. However, the model training process is both time-intensive and energy-intensive, inevitably affecting the user's demand for application efficiency. Layer freezing, an efficient model training technique, has been proposed to improve training efficiency. Although existing layer freezing methods demonstrate the great potential to reduce model training costs, they still remain shortcomings such as lacking generalizability and compromised accuracy. For instance, existing layer freezing methods either require the freeze configurations to be manually defined before training, which does not apply to different networks, or use heuristic freezing criteria that is hard to guarantee decent accuracy in different scenarios. Therefore, there lacks a generic and smart layer freezing method that can automatically perform ``in-situation'' layer freezing for different networks during training processes. To this end, we propose a generic and efficient training framework (SmartFRZ). The core proposed technique in SmartFRZ is attention-guided layer freezing, which can automatically select the appropriate layers to freeze without compromising accuracy. Experimental results show that SmartFRZ effectively reduces the amount of computation in training and achieves significant training acceleration, and outperforms the state-of-the-art layer freezing approaches.
Emerging applications, such as robot-assisted eldercare and object recognition, generally employ deep learning neural networks (DNNs) models and naturally require: i) handling streaming-in inference requests and ii) adapting to possible deployment scenario changes. Online model fine-tuning is widely adopted to satisfy these needs. However, fine-tuning involves significant energy consumption, making it challenging to deploy on edge devices. In this paper, we propose EdgeOL, an edge online learning framework that optimizes inference accuracy, fine-tuning execution time, and energy efficiency through both inter-tuning and intra-tuning optimizations. Experimental results show that, on average, EdgeOL reduces overall fine-tuning execution time by 82%, energy consumption by 74%, and improves average inference accuracy by 1.70% over the immediate online learning strategy.
Resistive Random Access Memory (ReRAM) has emerged as a promising platform for deep neural networks (DNNs) due to its support for parallel in-situ matrix-vector multiplication. However, hardware failures, such as stuck-at-fault defects, can result in significant prediction errors during model inference. While additional crossbars can be used to address these failures, they come with storage overhead and are not efficient in terms of space, energy, and cost. In this paper, we propose a fault protection mechanism that incurs zero space cost. Our approach includes: 1) differentiable structure pruning of rows and columns to reduce model redundancy, 2) weight duplication and voting for robust output, and 3) embedding duplicated most significant bits (MSBs) into the model weight. We evaluate our method on nine tasks of the GLUE benchmark with the BERT model, and experimental results prove its effectiveness.
Medical time series data are indispensable in healthcare, providing critical insights for disease diagnosis, treatment planning, and patient management. The exponential growth in data complexity, driven by advanced sensor technologies, has presented challenges related to data labeling. Self-supervised learning (SSL) has emerged as a transformative approach to address these challenges, eliminating the need for extensive human annotation. In this study, we introduce a novel framework for Medical Time Series Representation Learning, known as MTS-LOF. MTS-LOF leverages the strengths of contrastive learning and Masked Autoencoder (MAE) methods, offering a unique approach to representation learning for medical time series data. By combining these techniques, MTS-LOF enhances the potential of healthcare applications by providing more sophisticated, context-rich representations. Additionally, MTS-LOF employs a multi-masking strategy to facilitate occlusion-invariant feature learning. This approach allows the model to create multiple views of the data by masking portions of it. By minimizing the discrepancy between the representations of these masked patches and the fully visible patches, MTS-LOF learns to capture rich contextual information within medical time series datasets. The results of experiments conducted on diverse medical time series datasets demonstrate the superiority of MTS-LOF over other methods. These findings hold promise for significantly enhancing healthcare applications by improving representation learning. Furthermore, our work delves into the integration of joint-embedding SSL and MAE techniques, shedding light on the intricate interplay between temporal and structural dependencies in healthcare data. This understanding is crucial, as it allows us to grasp the complexities of healthcare data analysis.
Adiabatic Quantum-Flux-Parametron (AQFP) is a superconducting logic with extremely high energy efficiency. By employing the distinct polarity of current to denote logic `0' and `1', AQFP devices serve as excellent carriers for binary neural network (BNN) computations. Although recent research has made initial strides toward developing an AQFP-based BNN accelerator, several critical challenges remain, preventing the design from being a comprehensive solution. In this paper, we propose SupeRBNN, an AQFP-based randomized BNN acceleration framework that leverages software-hardware co-optimization to eventually make the AQFP devices a feasible solution for BNN acceleration. Specifically, we investigate the randomized behavior of the AQFP devices and analyze the impact of crossbar size on current attenuation, subsequently formulating the current amplitude into the values suitable for use in BNN computation. To tackle the accumulation problem and improve overall hardware performance, we propose a stochastic computing-based accumulation module and a clocking scheme adjustment-based circuit optimization method. We validate our SupeRBNN framework across various datasets and network architectures, comparing it with implementations based on different technologies, including CMOS, ReRAM, and superconducting RSFQ/ERSFQ. Experimental results demonstrate that our design achieves an energy efficiency of approximately 7.8x10^4 times higher than that of the ReRAM-based BNN framework while maintaining a similar level of model accuracy. Furthermore, when compared with superconductor-based counterparts, our framework demonstrates at least two orders of magnitude higher energy efficiency.
* Accepted by MICRO'23 (56th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on
Artificial General Intelligence (AGI), possessing the capacity to comprehend, learn, and execute tasks with human cognitive abilities, engenders significant anticipation and intrigue across scientific, commercial, and societal arenas. This fascination extends particularly to the Internet of Things (IoT), a landscape characterized by the interconnection of countless devices, sensors, and systems, collectively gathering and sharing data to enable intelligent decision-making and automation. This research embarks on an exploration of the opportunities and challenges towards achieving AGI in the context of the IoT. Specifically, it starts by outlining the fundamental principles of IoT and the critical role of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in IoT systems. Subsequently, it delves into AGI fundamentals, culminating in the formulation of a conceptual framework for AGI's seamless integration within IoT. The application spectrum for AGI-infused IoT is broad, encompassing domains ranging from smart grids, residential environments, manufacturing, and transportation to environmental monitoring, agriculture, healthcare, and education. However, adapting AGI to resource-constrained IoT settings necessitates dedicated research efforts. Furthermore, the paper addresses constraints imposed by limited computing resources, intricacies associated with large-scale IoT communication, as well as the critical concerns pertaining to security and privacy.
As data become increasingly vital for deep learning, a company would be very cautious about releasing data, because the competitors could use the released data to train high-performance models, thereby posing a tremendous threat to the company's commercial competence. To prevent training good models on the data, imperceptible perturbations could be added to it. Since such perturbations aim at hurting the entire training process, they should reflect the vulnerability of DNN training, rather than that of a single model. Based on this new idea, we seek adversarial examples that are always unrecognized (never correctly classified) in training. In this paper, we uncover them by modeling checkpoints' gradients, forming the proposed self-ensemble protection (SEP), which is very effective because (1) learning on examples ignored during normal training tends to yield DNNs ignoring normal examples; (2) checkpoints' cross-model gradients are close to orthogonal, meaning that they are as diverse as DNNs with different architectures in conventional ensemble. That is, our amazing performance of ensemble only requires the computation of training one model. By extensive experiments with 9 baselines on 3 datasets and 5 architectures, SEP is verified to be a new state-of-the-art, e.g., our small $\ell_\infty=2/255$ perturbations reduce the accuracy of a CIFAR-10 ResNet18 from 94.56\% to 14.68\%, compared to 41.35\% by the best-known method.Code is available at https://github.com/Sizhe-Chen/SEP.
Vision transformers (ViTs) have recently obtained success in many applications, but their intensive computation and heavy memory usage at both training and inference time limit their generalization. Previous compression algorithms usually start from the pre-trained dense models and only focus on efficient inference, while time-consuming training is still unavoidable. In contrast, this paper points out that the million-scale training data is redundant, which is the fundamental reason for the tedious training. To address the issue, this paper aims to introduce sparsity into data and proposes an end-to-end efficient training framework from three sparse perspectives, dubbed Tri-Level E-ViT. Specifically, we leverage a hierarchical data redundancy reduction scheme, by exploring the sparsity under three levels: number of training examples in the dataset, number of patches (tokens) in each example, and number of connections between tokens that lie in attention weights. With extensive experiments, we demonstrate that our proposed technique can noticeably accelerate training for various ViT architectures while maintaining accuracy. Remarkably, under certain ratios, we are able to improve the ViT accuracy rather than compromising it. For example, we can achieve 15.2% speedup with 72.6% (+0.4) Top-1 accuracy on Deit-T, and 15.7% speedup with 79.9% (+0.1) Top-1 accuracy on Deit-S. This proves the existence of data redundancy in ViT.
The conventional lottery ticket hypothesis (LTH) claims that there exists a sparse subnetwork within a dense neural network and a proper random initialization method, called the winning ticket, such that it can be trained from scratch to almost as good as the dense counterpart. Meanwhile, the research of LTH in vision transformers (ViTs) is scarcely evaluated. In this paper, we first show that the conventional winning ticket is hard to find at weight level of ViTs by existing methods. Then, we generalize the LTH for ViTs to input images consisting of image patches inspired by the input dependence of ViTs. That is, there exists a subset of input image patches such that a ViT can be trained from scratch by using only this subset of patches and achieve similar accuracy to the ViTs trained by using all image patches. We call this subset of input patches the winning tickets, which represent a significant amount of information in the input. Furthermore, we present a simple yet effective method to find the winning tickets in input patches for various types of ViT, including DeiT, LV-ViT, and Swin Transformers. More specifically, we use a ticket selector to generate the winning tickets based on the informativeness of patches. Meanwhile, we build another randomly selected subset of patches for comparison, and the experiments show that there is clear difference between the performance of models trained with winning tickets and randomly selected subsets.
Recently, sparse training has emerged as a promising paradigm for efficient deep learning on edge devices. The current research mainly devotes efforts to reducing training costs by further increasing model sparsity. However, increasing sparsity is not always ideal since it will inevitably introduce severe accuracy degradation at an extremely high sparsity level. This paper intends to explore other possible directions to effectively and efficiently reduce sparse training costs while preserving accuracy. To this end, we investigate two techniques, namely, layer freezing and data sieving. First, the layer freezing approach has shown its success in dense model training and fine-tuning, yet it has never been adopted in the sparse training domain. Nevertheless, the unique characteristics of sparse training may hinder the incorporation of layer freezing techniques. Therefore, we analyze the feasibility and potentiality of using the layer freezing technique in sparse training and find it has the potential to save considerable training costs. Second, we propose a data sieving method for dataset-efficient training, which further reduces training costs by ensuring only a partial dataset is used throughout the entire training process. We show that both techniques can be well incorporated into the sparse training algorithm to form a generic framework, which we dub SpFDE. Our extensive experiments demonstrate that SpFDE can significantly reduce training costs while preserving accuracy from three dimensions: weight sparsity, layer freezing, and dataset sieving.
* Published in 36th Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems