The growth of the Machine-Learning-As-A-Service (MLaaS) market has highlighted clients' data privacy and security issues. Private inference (PI) techniques using cryptographic primitives offer a solution but often have high computation and communication costs, particularly with non-linear operators like ReLU. Many attempts to reduce ReLU operations exist, but they may need heuristic threshold selection or cause substantial accuracy loss. This work introduces AutoReP, a gradient-based approach to lessen non-linear operators and alleviate these issues. It automates the selection of ReLU and polynomial functions to speed up PI applications and introduces distribution-aware polynomial approximation (DaPa) to maintain model expressivity while accurately approximating ReLUs. Our experimental results demonstrate significant accuracy improvements of 6.12% (94.31%, 12.9K ReLU budget, CIFAR-10), 8.39% (74.92%, 12.9K ReLU budget, CIFAR-100), and 9.45% (63.69%, 55K ReLU budget, Tiny-ImageNet) over current state-of-the-art methods, e.g., SNL. Morever, AutoReP is applied to EfficientNet-B2 on ImageNet dataset, and achieved 75.55% accuracy with 176.1 times ReLU budget reduction.
The proliferation of deep learning (DL) has led to the emergence of privacy and security concerns. To address these issues, secure Two-party computation (2PC) has been proposed as a means of enabling privacy-preserving DL computation. However, in practice, 2PC methods often incur high computation and communication overhead, which can impede their use in large-scale systems. To address this challenge, we introduce RRNet, a systematic framework that aims to jointly reduce the overhead of MPC comparison protocols and accelerate computation through hardware acceleration. Our approach integrates the hardware latency of cryptographic building blocks into the DNN loss function, resulting in improved energy efficiency, accuracy, and security guarantees. Furthermore, we propose a cryptographic hardware scheduler and corresponding performance model for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to further enhance the efficiency of our framework. Experiments show RRNet achieved a much higher ReLU reduction performance than all SOTA works on CIFAR-10 dataset.
The rapid growth and deployment of deep learning (DL) has witnessed emerging privacy and security concerns. To mitigate these issues, secure multi-party computation (MPC) has been discussed, to enable the privacy-preserving DL computation. In practice, they often come at very high computation and communication overhead, and potentially prohibit their popularity in large scale systems. Two orthogonal research trends have attracted enormous interests in addressing the energy efficiency in secure deep learning, i.e., overhead reduction of MPC comparison protocol, and hardware acceleration. However, they either achieve a low reduction ratio and suffer from high latency due to limited computation and communication saving, or are power-hungry as existing works mainly focus on general computing platforms such as CPUs and GPUs. In this work, as the first attempt, we develop a systematic framework, PolyMPCNet, of joint overhead reduction of MPC comparison protocol and hardware acceleration, by integrating hardware latency of the cryptographic building block into the DNN loss function to achieve high energy efficiency, accuracy, and security guarantee. Instead of heuristically checking the model sensitivity after a DNN is well-trained (through deleting or dropping some non-polynomial operators), our key design principle is to em enforce exactly what is assumed in the DNN design -- training a DNN that is both hardware efficient and secure, while escaping the local minima and saddle points and maintaining high accuracy. More specifically, we propose a straight through polynomial activation initialization method for cryptographic hardware friendly trainable polynomial activation function to replace the expensive 2P-ReLU operator. We develop a cryptographic hardware scheduler and the corresponding performance model for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) platform.
In this work, we consider the problem of designing secure and efficient federated learning (FL) frameworks. Existing solutions either involve a trusted aggregator or require heavyweight cryptographic primitives, which degrades performance significantly. Moreover, many existing secure FL designs work only under the restrictive assumption that none of the clients can be dropped out from the training protocol. To tackle these problems, we propose SEFL, a secure and efficient FL framework that (1) eliminates the need for the trusted entities; (2) achieves similar and even better model accuracy compared with existing FL designs; (3) is resilient to client dropouts. Through extensive experimental studies on natural language processing (NLP) tasks, we demonstrate that the SEFL achieves comparable accuracy compared to existing FL solutions, and the proposed pruning technique can improve runtime performance up to 13.7x.
Distributed learning such as federated learning or collaborative learning enables model training on decentralized data from users and only collects local gradients, where data is processed close to its sources for data privacy. The nature of not centralizing the training data addresses the privacy issue of privacy-sensitive data. Recent studies show that a third party can reconstruct the true training data in the distributed machine learning system through the publicly-shared gradients. However, existing reconstruction attack frameworks lack generalizability on different Deep Neural Network (DNN) architectures and different weight distribution initialization, and can only succeed in the early training phase. To address these limitations, in this paper, we propose a more general privacy attack from gradient, SAPAG, which uses a Gaussian kernel based of gradient difference as a distance measure. Our experiments demonstrate that SAPAG can construct the training data on different DNNs with different weight initializations and on DNNs in any training phases.
Deep Neural Networks are widely applied to various domains. The successful deployment of these applications is everywhere and it depends on the availability of big data. However, massive data collection required for deep neural network reveals the potential privacy issues and also consumes large mounts of communication bandwidth. To address this problem, we propose a privacy-preserving method for the federated learning distributed system, operated on Intel Software Guard Extensions, a set of instructions that increases the security of application code and data. Meanwhile, the encrypted models make the transmission overhead larger. Hence, we reduce the commutation cost by sparsification and achieve reasonable accuracy with different model architectures. Experimental results under our privacy-preserving framework show that, for LeNet-5, we obtain 98.78% accuracy on IID data and 97.60% accuracy on Non-IID data with 34.85% communication saving, and 1.8X total elapsed time acceleration. For MobileNetV2, we obtain 85.40% accuracy on IID data and 81.66% accuracy on Non-IID data with 15.85% communication saving, and 1.2X total elapsed time acceleration.
Deep learning or deep neural networks (DNNs) have nowadays enabled high performance, including but not limited to fraud detection, recommendations, and different kinds of analytical transactions. However, the large model size, high computational cost, and vulnerability against membership inference attack (MIA) have impeded its popularity, especially on resource-constrained edge devices. As the first attempt to simultaneously address these challenges, we envision that DNN model compression technique will help deep learning models against MIA while reducing model storage and computational cost. We jointly formulate model compression and MIA as MCMIA, and provide an analytic method of solving the problem. We evaluate our method on LeNet-5, VGG16, MobileNetV2, ResNet18 on different datasets including MNIST, CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, and ImageNet. Experimental results show that our MCMIA model can reduce the attack accuracy, therefore reduce the information leakage from MIA. Our proposed method significantly outperforms differential privacy (DP) on MIA. Compared with our MCMIA--Pruning, our MCMIA--Pruning \& Min-Max game can achieve the lowest attack accuracy, therefore maximally enhance DNN model privacy. Thanks to the hardware-friendly characteristic of model compression, our proposed MCMIA is especially useful in deploying DNNs on resource-constrained platforms in a privacy-preserving manner.