The widespread adoption of the Android operating system has made malicious Android applications an appealing target for attackers. Machine learning-based (ML-based) Android malware detection (AMD) methods are crucial in addressing this problem; however, their vulnerability to adversarial examples raises concerns. Current attacks against ML-based AMD methods demonstrate remarkable performance but rely on strong assumptions that may not be realistic in real-world scenarios, e.g., the knowledge requirements about feature space, model parameters, and training dataset. To address this limitation, we introduce AdvDroidZero, an efficient query-based attack framework against ML-based AMD methods that operates under the zero knowledge setting. Our extensive evaluation shows that AdvDroidZero is effective against various mainstream ML-based AMD methods, in particular, state-of-the-art such methods and real-world antivirus solutions.
We present a novel defense, against backdoor attacks on Deep Neural Networks (DNNs), wherein adversaries covertly implant malicious behaviors (backdoors) into DNNs. Our defense falls within the category of post-development defenses that operate independently of how the model was generated. The proposed defense is built upon a novel reverse engineering approach that can directly extract backdoor functionality of a given backdoored model to a backdoor expert model. The approach is straightforward -- finetuning the backdoored model over a small set of intentionally mislabeled clean samples, such that it unlearns the normal functionality while still preserving the backdoor functionality, and thus resulting in a model (dubbed a backdoor expert model) that can only recognize backdoor inputs. Based on the extracted backdoor expert model, we show the feasibility of devising highly accurate backdoor input detectors that filter out the backdoor inputs during model inference. Further augmented by an ensemble strategy with a finetuned auxiliary model, our defense, BaDExpert (Backdoor Input Detection with Backdoor Expert), effectively mitigates 16 SOTA backdoor attacks while minimally impacting clean utility. The effectiveness of BaDExpert has been verified on multiple datasets (CIFAR10, GTSRB and ImageNet) across various model architectures (ResNet, VGG, MobileNetV2 and Vision Transformer).
In China, stroke is the first leading cause of death in recent years. It is a major cause of long-term physical and cognitive impairment, which bring great pressure on the National Public Health System. Evaluation of the risk of getting stroke is important for the prevention and treatment of stroke in China. A data set with 2000 hospitalized stroke patients in 2018 and 27583 residents during the year 2017 to 2020 is analyzed in this study. Due to data incompleteness, inconsistency, and non-structured formats, missing values in the raw data are filled with -1 as an abnormal class. With the cleaned features, three models on risk levels of getting stroke are built by using machine learning methods. The importance of "8+2" factors from China National Stroke Prevention Project (CSPP) is evaluated via decision tree and random forest models. Except for "8+2" factors the importance of features and SHAP1 values for lifestyle information, demographic information, and medical measurement are evaluated and ranked via a random forest model. Furthermore, a logistic regression model is applied to evaluate the probability of getting stroke for different risk levels. Based on the census data in both communities and hospitals from Shanxi Province, we investigate different risk factors of getting stroke and their ranking with interpretable machine learning models. The results show that Hypertension (Systolic blood pressure, Diastolic blood pressure), Physical Inactivity (Lack of sports), and Overweight (BMI) are ranked as the top three high-risk factors of getting stroke in Shanxi province. The probability of getting stroke for a person can also be predicted via our machine learning model.
Enriching existing medical terminology knowledge bases (KBs) is an important and never-ending work for clinical research because new terminology alias may be continually added and standard terminologies may be newly renamed. In this paper, we propose a novel automatic terminology enriching approach to supplement a set of terminologies to KBs. Specifically, terminology and entity characters are first fed into pre-trained language model to obtain semantic embedding. The pre-trained model is used again to initialize the terminology and entity representations, then they are further embedded through graph convolutional network to gain structure embedding. Afterwards, both semantic and structure embeddings are combined to measure the relevancy between the terminology and the entity. Finally, the optimal alignment is achieved based on the order of relevancy between the terminology and all the entities in the KB. Experimental results on clinical indicator terminology KB, collected from 38 top-class hospitals of Shanghai Hospital Development Center, show that our proposed approach outperforms baseline methods and can effectively enrich the KB.
Electronic health records (EHRs) stored in hospital information systems completely reflect the patients' diagnosis and treatment processes, which are essential to clinical data mining. Chinese word segmentation (CWS) is a fundamental and important task for Chinese natural language processing. Currently, most state-of-the-art CWS methods greatly depend on large-scale manually-annotated data, which is a very time-consuming and expensive work, specially for the annotation in medical field. In this paper, we present an active learning method for CWS in medical text. To effectively utilize complete segmentation history, a new scoring model in sampling strategy is proposed, which combines information entropy with neural network. Besides, to capture interactions between adjacent characters, K-means clustering features are additionally added in word segmenter. We experimentally evaluate our proposed CWS method in medical text, experimental results based on EHRs collected from the Shuguang Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine show that our proposed method outperforms other reference methods, which can effectively save the cost of manual annotation.
Entity and relation extraction is the necessary step in structuring medical text. However, the feature extraction ability of the bidirectional long short term memory network in the existing model does not achieve the best effect. At the same time, the language model has achieved excellent results in more and more natural language processing tasks. In this paper, we present a focused attention model for the joint entity and relation extraction task. Our model integrates well-known BERT language model into joint learning through dynamic range attention mechanism, thus improving the feature representation ability of shared parameter layer. Experimental results on coronary angiography texts collected from Shuguang Hospital show that the F1-score of named entity recognition and relation classification tasks reach 96.89% and 88.51%, which are better than state-of-the-art methods 1.65% and 1.22%, respectively.
Named entities which composed of multiple continuous words frequently occur in domain-specific knowledge graphs. These entities are usually composable and extensible. Typical examples are names of symptoms and diseases in medical areas. To distinguish these entities from general entities, we name them compound entities. Hypernymy detection between compound entities plays an important role in domain-specific knowledge graph construction. Traditional hypernymy detection approaches cannot perform well on compound entities due to the lack of contextual information in texts, and even the absence of compound entities in training sets, i.e. Out-Of-Vocabulary (OOV) problem. In this paper, we present a novel attention-based Bi-GRU-CapsNet model to detect hypernymy relationship between compound entities. Our model consists of several important components. To avoid the OOV problem, English words or Chinese characters in compound entities are fed into Bidirectional Gated Recurrent Units (Bi-GRUs). An attention mechanism is designed to focus on the differences between two compound entities. Since there are some different cases in hypernymy relationship between compound entities, Capsule Network (CapsNet) is finally employed to decide whether the hypernymy relationship exists or not. Experimental results demonstrate the advantages of our model over the state-of-the-art methods both on English and Chinese corpora of symptom and disease pairs.
Clinical Named Entity Recognition (CNER) aims to identify and classify clinical terms such as diseases, symptoms, treatments, exams, and body parts in electronic health records, which is a fundamental and crucial task for clinical and translational research. In recent years, deep neural networks have achieved significant success in named entity recognition and many other Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks. Most of these algorithms are trained end to end, and can automatically learn features from large scale labeled datasets. However, these data-driven methods typically lack the capability of processing rare or unseen entities. Previous statistical methods and feature engineering practice have demonstrated that human knowledge can provide valuable information for handling rare and unseen cases. In this paper, we address the problem by incorporating dictionaries into deep neural networks for the Chinese CNER task. Two different architectures that extend the Bi-directional Long Short-Term Memory (Bi-LSTM) neural network and five different feature representation schemes are proposed to handle the task. Computational results on the CCKS-2017 Task 2 benchmark dataset show that the proposed method achieves the highly competitive performance compared with the state-of-the-art deep learning methods.