Protein language models (PLMs) pre-trained on large-scale protein sequence corpora have achieved impressive performance on various downstream protein understanding tasks. Despite the ability to implicitly capture inter-residue contact information, transformer-based PLMs cannot encode protein structures explicitly for better structure-aware protein representations. Besides, the power of pre-training on available protein structures has not been explored for improving these PLMs, though structures are important to determine functions. To tackle these limitations, in this work, we enhance the PLMs with structure-based encoder and pre-training. We first explore feasible model architectures to combine the advantages of a state-of-the-art PLM (i.e., ESM-1b1) and a state-of-the-art protein structure encoder (i.e., GearNet). We empirically verify the ESM-GearNet that connects two encoders in a series way as the most effective combination model. To further improve the effectiveness of ESM-GearNet, we pre-train it on massive unlabeled protein structures with contrastive learning, which aligns representations of co-occurring subsequences so as to capture their biological correlation. Extensive experiments on EC and GO protein function prediction benchmarks demonstrate the superiority of ESM-GearNet over previous PLMs and structure encoders, and clear performance gains are further achieved by structure-based pre-training upon ESM-GearNet. Our implementation is available at https://github.com/DeepGraphLearning/GearNet.
Pre-training methods on proteins are recently gaining interest, leveraging either protein sequences or structures, while modeling their joint energy landscape is largely unexplored. In this work, inspired by the success of denoising diffusion models, we propose the DiffPreT approach to pre-train a protein encoder by sequence-structure multimodal diffusion modeling. DiffPreT guides the encoder to recover the native protein sequences and structures from the perturbed ones along the multimodal diffusion trajectory, which acquires the joint distribution of sequences and structures. Considering the essential protein conformational variations, we enhance DiffPreT by a physics-inspired method called Siamese Diffusion Trajectory Prediction (SiamDiff) to capture the correlation between different conformers of a protein. SiamDiff attains this goal by maximizing the mutual information between representations of diffusion trajectories of structurally-correlated conformers. We study the effectiveness of DiffPreT and SiamDiff on both atom- and residue-level structure-based protein understanding tasks. Experimental results show that the performance of DiffPreT is consistently competitive on all tasks, and SiamDiff achieves new state-of-the-art performance, considering the mean ranks on all tasks. The source code will be released upon acceptance.
Current protein language models (PLMs) learn protein representations mainly based on their sequences, thereby well capturing co-evolutionary information, but they are unable to explicitly acquire protein functions, which is the end goal of protein representation learning. Fortunately, for many proteins, their textual property descriptions are available, where their various functions are also described. Motivated by this fact, we first build the ProtDescribe dataset to augment protein sequences with text descriptions of their functions and other important properties. Based on this dataset, we propose the ProtST framework to enhance Protein Sequence pre-training and understanding by biomedical Texts. During pre-training, we design three types of tasks, i.e., unimodal mask prediction, multimodal representation alignment and multimodal mask prediction, to enhance a PLM with protein property information with different granularities and, at the same time, preserve the PLM's original representation power. On downstream tasks, ProtST enables both supervised learning and zero-shot prediction. We verify the superiority of ProtST-induced PLMs over previous ones on diverse representation learning benchmarks. Under the zero-shot setting, we show the effectiveness of ProtST on zero-shot protein classification, and ProtST also enables functional protein retrieval from a large-scale database without any function annotation.
Modeling spatial relationship in the data remains critical across many different tasks, such as image classification, semantic segmentation and protein structure understanding. Previous works often use a unified solution like relative positional encoding. However, there exists different kinds of spatial relations, including short-range, medium-range and long-range relations, and modeling them separately can better capture the focus of different tasks on the multi-range relations (e.g., short-range relations can be important in instance segmentation, while long-range relations should be upweighted for semantic segmentation). In this work, we introduce the EurNet for Efficient multi-range relational modeling. EurNet constructs the multi-relational graph, where each type of edge corresponds to short-, medium- or long-range spatial interactions. In the constructed graph, EurNet adopts a novel modeling layer, called gated relational message passing (GRMP), to propagate multi-relational information across the data. GRMP captures multiple relations within the data with little extra computational cost. We study EurNets in two important domains for image and protein structure modeling. Extensive experiments on ImageNet classification, COCO object detection and ADE20K semantic segmentation verify the gains of EurNet over the previous SoTA FocalNet. On the EC and GO protein function prediction benchmarks, EurNet consistently surpasses the previous SoTA GearNet. Our results demonstrate the strength of EurNets on modeling spatial multi-relational data from various domains. The implementations of EurNet for image modeling are available at https://github.com/hirl-team/EurNet-Image . The implementations for other applied domains/tasks will be released soon.
We are now witnessing significant progress of deep learning methods in a variety of tasks (or datasets) of proteins. However, there is a lack of a standard benchmark to evaluate the performance of different methods, which hinders the progress of deep learning in this field. In this paper, we propose such a benchmark called PEER, a comprehensive and multi-task benchmark for Protein sEquence undERstanding. PEER provides a set of diverse protein understanding tasks including protein function prediction, protein localization prediction, protein structure prediction, protein-protein interaction prediction, and protein-ligand interaction prediction. We evaluate different types of sequence-based methods for each task including traditional feature engineering approaches, different sequence encoding methods as well as large-scale pre-trained protein language models. In addition, we also investigate the performance of these methods under the multi-task learning setting. Experimental results show that large-scale pre-trained protein language models achieve the best performance for most individual tasks, and jointly training multiple tasks further boosts the performance. The datasets and source codes of this benchmark will be open-sourced soon.
Learning self-supervised image representations has been broadly studied to boost various visual understanding tasks. Existing methods typically learn a single level of image semantics like pairwise semantic similarity or image clustering patterns. However, these methods can hardly capture multiple levels of semantic information that naturally exists in an image dataset, e.g., the semantic hierarchy of "Persian cat to cat to mammal" encoded in an image database for species. It is thus unknown whether an arbitrary image self-supervised learning (SSL) approach can benefit from learning such hierarchical semantics. To answer this question, we propose a general framework for Hierarchical Image Representation Learning (HIRL). This framework aims to learn multiple semantic representations for each image, and these representations are structured to encode image semantics from fine-grained to coarse-grained. Based on a probabilistic factorization, HIRL learns the most fine-grained semantics by an off-the-shelf image SSL approach and learns multiple coarse-grained semantics by a novel semantic path discrimination scheme. We adopt six representative image SSL methods as baselines and study how they perform under HIRL. By rigorous fair comparison, performance gain is observed on all the six methods for diverse downstream tasks, which, for the first time, verifies the general effectiveness of learning hierarchical image semantics. All source code and model weights are available at https://github.com/hirl-team/HIRL
Recent years have witnessed the surge of learned representations that directly build upon point clouds. Though becoming increasingly expressive, most existing representations still struggle to generate ordered point sets. Inspired by spherical multi-view scanners, we propose a novel sampling model called Spotlights to represent a 3D shape as a compact 1D array of depth values. It simulates the configuration of cameras evenly distributed on a sphere, where each virtual camera casts light rays from its principal point through sample points on a small concentric spherical cap to probe for the possible intersections with the object surrounded by the sphere. The structured point cloud is hence given implicitly as a function of depths. We provide a detailed geometric analysis of this new sampling scheme and prove its effectiveness in the context of the point cloud completion task. Experimental results on both synthetic and real data demonstrate that our method achieves competitive accuracy and consistency while having a significantly reduced computational cost. Furthermore, we show superior performance on the downstream point cloud registration task over state-of-the-art completion methods.
With the rapid development of deep learning, training Big Models (BMs) for multiple downstream tasks becomes a popular paradigm. Researchers have achieved various outcomes in the construction of BMs and the BM application in many fields. At present, there is a lack of research work that sorts out the overall progress of BMs and guides the follow-up research. In this paper, we cover not only the BM technologies themselves but also the prerequisites for BM training and applications with BMs, dividing the BM review into four parts: Resource, Models, Key Technologies and Application. We introduce 16 specific BM-related topics in those four parts, they are Data, Knowledge, Computing System, Parallel Training System, Language Model, Vision Model, Multi-modal Model, Theory&Interpretability, Commonsense Reasoning, Reliability&Security, Governance, Evaluation, Machine Translation, Text Generation, Dialogue and Protein Research. In each topic, we summarize clearly the current studies and propose some future research directions. At the end of this paper, we conclude the further development of BMs in a more general view.
Learning effective protein representations is critical in a variety of tasks in biology such as predicting protein function or structure. Existing approaches usually pretrain protein language models on a large number of unlabeled amino acid sequences and then finetune the models with some labeled data in downstream tasks. Despite the effectiveness of sequence-based approaches, the power of pretraining on smaller numbers of known protein structures has not been explored for protein property prediction, though protein structures are known to be determinants of protein function. We first present a simple yet effective encoder to learn protein geometry features. We pretrain the protein graph encoder by leveraging multiview contrastive learning and different self-prediction tasks. Experimental results on both function prediction and fold classification tasks show that our proposed pretraining methods outperform or are on par with the state-of-the-art sequence-based methods using much less data. All codes and models will be published upon acceptance.
Machine learning has huge potential to revolutionize the field of drug discovery and is attracting increasing attention in recent years. However, lacking domain knowledge (e.g., which tasks to work on), standard benchmarks and data preprocessing pipelines are the main obstacles for machine learning researchers to work in this domain. To facilitate the progress of machine learning for drug discovery, we develop TorchDrug, a powerful and flexible machine learning platform for drug discovery built on top of PyTorch. TorchDrug benchmarks a variety of important tasks in drug discovery, including molecular property prediction, pretrained molecular representations, de novo molecular design and optimization, retrosynthsis prediction, and biomedical knowledge graph reasoning. State-of-the-art techniques based on geometric deep learning (or graph machine learning), deep generative models, reinforcement learning and knowledge graph reasoning are implemented for these tasks. TorchDrug features a hierarchical interface that facilitates customization from both novices and experts in this domain. Tutorials, benchmark results and documentation are available at https://torchdrug.ai. Code is released under Apache License 2.0.