Recently, pre-trained foundation models have enabled significant advancements in multiple fields. In molecular machine learning, however, where datasets are often hand-curated, and hence typically small, the lack of datasets with labeled features, and codebases to manage those datasets, has hindered the development of foundation models. In this work, we present seven novel datasets categorized by size into three distinct categories: ToyMix, LargeMix and UltraLarge. These datasets push the boundaries in both the scale and the diversity of supervised labels for molecular learning. They cover nearly 100 million molecules and over 3000 sparsely defined tasks, totaling more than 13 billion individual labels of both quantum and biological nature. In comparison, our datasets contain 300 times more data points than the widely used OGB-LSC PCQM4Mv2 dataset, and 13 times more than the quantum-only QM1B dataset. In addition, to support the development of foundational models based on our proposed datasets, we present the Graphium graph machine learning library which simplifies the process of building and training molecular machine learning models for multi-task and multi-level molecular datasets. Finally, we present a range of baseline results as a starting point of multi-task and multi-level training on these datasets. Empirically, we observe that performance on low-resource biological datasets show improvement by also training on large amounts of quantum data. This indicates that there may be potential in multi-task and multi-level training of a foundation model and fine-tuning it to resource-constrained downstream tasks.
When prompted with a few examples and intermediate steps, large language models (LLMs) have demonstrated impressive performance in various reasoning tasks. However, prompting methods that rely on implicit knowledge in an LLM often hallucinate incorrect answers when the implicit knowledge is wrong or inconsistent with the task. To tackle this problem, we present Hypotheses-to-Theories (HtT), a framework that learns a rule library for reasoning with LLMs. HtT contains two stages, an induction stage and a deduction stage. In the induction stage, an LLM is first asked to generate and verify rules over a set of training examples. Rules that appear and lead to correct answers sufficiently often are collected to form a rule library. In the deduction stage, the LLM is then prompted to employ the learned rule library to perform reasoning to answer test questions. Experiments on both numerical reasoning and relational reasoning problems show that HtT improves existing prompting methods, with an absolute gain of 11-27% in accuracy. The learned rules are also transferable to different models and to different forms of the same problem.
Foundation models in language and vision have the ability to run inference on any textual and visual inputs thanks to the transferable representations such as a vocabulary of tokens in language. Knowledge graphs (KGs) have different entity and relation vocabularies that generally do not overlap. The key challenge of designing foundation models on KGs is to learn such transferable representations that enable inference on any graph with arbitrary entity and relation vocabularies. In this work, we make a step towards such foundation models and present ULTRA, an approach for learning universal and transferable graph representations. ULTRA builds relational representations as a function conditioned on their interactions. Such a conditioning strategy allows a pre-trained ULTRA model to inductively generalize to any unseen KG with any relation vocabulary and to be fine-tuned on any graph. Conducting link prediction experiments on 57 different KGs, we find that the zero-shot inductive inference performance of a single pre-trained ULTRA model on unseen graphs of various sizes is often on par or better than strong baselines trained on specific graphs. Fine-tuning further boosts the performance.
Large Language Models (LLMs) have gained the ability to assimilate human knowledge and facilitate natural language interactions with both humans and other LLMs. However, despite their impressive achievements, LLMs have not made significant advancements in the realm of graph machine learning. This limitation arises because graphs encapsulate distinct relational data, making it challenging to transform them into natural language that LLMs understand. In this paper, we bridge this gap with a novel framework, GraphText, that translates graphs into natural language. GraphText derives a graph-syntax tree for each graph that encapsulates both the node attributes and inter-node relationships. Traversal of the tree yields a graph text sequence, which is then processed by an LLM to treat graph tasks as text generation tasks. Notably, GraphText offers multiple advantages. It introduces training-free graph reasoning: even without training on graph data, GraphText with ChatGPT can achieve on par with, or even surpassing, the performance of supervised-trained graph neural networks through in-context learning (ICL). Furthermore, GraphText paves the way for interactive graph reasoning, allowing both humans and LLMs to communicate with the model seamlessly using natural language. These capabilities underscore the vast, yet-to-be-explored potential of LLMs in the domain of graph machine learning.
Complex logical query answering (CLQA) is a recently emerged task of graph machine learning that goes beyond simple one-hop link prediction and solves a far more complex task of multi-hop logical reasoning over massive, potentially incomplete graphs in a latent space. The task received a significant traction in the community; numerous works expanded the field along theoretical and practical axes to tackle different types of complex queries and graph modalities with efficient systems. In this paper, we provide a holistic survey of CLQA with a detailed taxonomy studying the field from multiple angles, including graph types (modality, reasoning domain, background semantics), modeling aspects (encoder, processor, decoder), supported queries (operators, patterns, projected variables), datasets, evaluation metrics, and applications. Refining the CLQA task, we introduce the concept of Neural Graph Databases (NGDBs). Extending the idea of graph databases (graph DBs), NGDB consists of a Neural Graph Storage and a Neural Graph Engine. Inside Neural Graph Storage, we design a graph store, a feature store, and further embed information in a latent embedding store using an encoder. Given a query, Neural Query Engine learns how to perform query planning and execution in order to efficiently retrieve the correct results by interacting with the Neural Graph Storage. Compared with traditional graph DBs, NGDBs allow for a flexible and unified modeling of features in diverse modalities using the embedding store. Moreover, when the graph is incomplete, they can provide robust retrieval of answers which a normal graph DB cannot recover. Finally, we point out promising directions, unsolved problems and applications of NGDB for future research.
Formulating and answering logical queries is a standard communication interface for knowledge graphs (KGs). Alleviating the notorious incompleteness of real-world KGs, neural methods achieved impressive results in link prediction and complex query answering tasks by learning representations of entities, relations, and queries. Still, most existing query answering methods rely on transductive entity embeddings and cannot generalize to KGs containing new entities without retraining the entity embeddings. In this work, we study the inductive query answering task where inference is performed on a graph containing new entities with queries over both seen and unseen entities. To this end, we devise two mechanisms leveraging inductive node and relational structure representations powered by graph neural networks (GNNs). Experimentally, we show that inductive models are able to perform logical reasoning at inference time over unseen nodes generalizing to graphs up to 500% larger than training ones. Exploring the efficiency--effectiveness trade-off, we find the inductive relational structure representation method generally achieves higher performance, while the inductive node representation method is able to answer complex queries in the inference-only regime without any training on queries and scales to graphs of millions of nodes. Code is available at https://github.com/DeepGraphLearning/InductiveQE.
We are now witnessing significant progress of deep learning methods in a variety of tasks (or datasets) of proteins. However, there is a lack of a standard benchmark to evaluate the performance of different methods, which hinders the progress of deep learning in this field. In this paper, we propose such a benchmark called PEER, a comprehensive and multi-task benchmark for Protein sEquence undERstanding. PEER provides a set of diverse protein understanding tasks including protein function prediction, protein localization prediction, protein structure prediction, protein-protein interaction prediction, and protein-ligand interaction prediction. We evaluate different types of sequence-based methods for each task including traditional feature engineering approaches, different sequence encoding methods as well as large-scale pre-trained protein language models. In addition, we also investigate the performance of these methods under the multi-task learning setting. Experimental results show that large-scale pre-trained protein language models achieve the best performance for most individual tasks, and jointly training multiple tasks further boosts the performance. The datasets and source codes of this benchmark will be open-sourced soon.
* Research project paper. arXiv v1: release all benchmark results
(source code will be released soon in the next version)
Answering complex first-order logic (FOL) queries on knowledge graphs is a fundamental task for multi-hop reasoning. Traditional symbolic methods traverse a complete knowledge graph to extract the answers, which provides good interpretation for each step. Recent neural methods learn geometric embeddings for complex queries. These methods can generalize to incomplete knowledge graphs, but their reasoning process is hard to interpret. In this paper, we propose Graph Neural Network Query Executor (GNN-QE), a neural-symbolic model that enjoys the advantages of both worlds. GNN-QE decomposes a complex FOL query into relation projections and logical operations over fuzzy sets, which provides interpretability for intermediate variables. To reason about the missing links, GNN-QE adapts a graph neural network from knowledge graph completion to execute the relation projections, and models the logical operations with product fuzzy logic. Extensive experiments on 3 datasets show that GNN-QE significantly improves over previous state-of-the-art models in answering FOL queries. Meanwhile, GNN-QE can predict the number of answers without explicit supervision, and provide visualizations for intermediate variables.