In this paper, the problem of joint user scheduling and computing resource allocation in asynchronous mobile edge computing (MEC) networks is studied. In such networks, edge devices will offload their computational tasks to an MEC server, using the energy they harvest from this server. To get their tasks processed on time using the harvested energy, edge devices will strategically schedule their task offloading, and compete for the computational resource at the MEC server. Then, the MEC server will execute these tasks asynchronously based on the arrival of the tasks. This joint user scheduling, time and computation resource allocation problem is posed as an optimization framework whose goal is to find the optimal scheduling and allocation strategy that minimizes the energy consumption of these mobile computing tasks. To solve this mixed-integer non-linear programming problem, the general benders decomposition method is adopted which decomposes the original problem into a primal problem and a master problem. Specifically, the primal problem is related to computation resource and time slot allocation, of which the optimal closed-form solution is obtained. The master problem regarding discrete user scheduling variables is constructed by adding optimality cuts or feasibility cuts according to whether the primal problem is feasible, which is a standard mixed-integer linear programming problem and can be efficiently solved. By iteratively solving the primal problem and master problem, the optimal scheduling and resource allocation scheme is obtained. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed asynchronous computing framework reduces 87.17% energy consumption compared with conventional synchronous computing counterpart.
Biased enhanced sampling methods utilizing collective variables (CVs) are powerful tools for sampling conformational ensembles. Due to high intrinsic dimensions, efficiently generating conformational ensembles for complex systems requires enhanced sampling on high-dimensional free energy surfaces. While methods like temperature-accelerated molecular dynamics (TAMD) can adopt many CVs in a simulation, unbiasing the simulation requires accurate modeling of a high-dimensional CV probability distribution, which is challenging for traditional density estimation techniques. Here we propose an unbiasing method based on the score-based diffusion model, a deep generative learning method that excels in density estimation across complex data landscapes. We test the score-based diffusion unbiasing method on TAMD simulations. The results demonstrate that this unbiasing approach significantly outperforms traditional unbiasing methods, and can generate accurate unbiased conformational ensembles for simulations with a number of CVs higher than usual ranges.
Deep neural networks (DNNs) that incorporated lifelong sequential modeling (LSM) have brought great success to recommendation systems in various social media platforms. While continuous improvements have been made in domain-specific LSM, limited work has been done in cross-domain LSM, which considers modeling of lifelong sequences of both target domain and source domain. In this paper, we propose Lifelong Cross Network (LCN) to incorporate cross-domain LSM to improve the click-through rate (CTR) prediction in the target domain. The proposed LCN contains a LifeLong Attention Pyramid (LAP) module that comprises of three levels of cascaded attentions to effectively extract interest representations with respect to the candidate item from lifelong sequences. We also propose Cross Representation Production (CRP) module to enforce additional supervision on the learning and alignment of cross-domain representations so that they can be better reused on learning of the CTR prediction in the target domain. We conducted extensive experiments on WeChat Channels industrial dataset as well as on benchmark dataset. Results have revealed that the proposed LCN outperforms existing work in terms of both prediction accuracy and online performance.
Recently, large language models (LLMs) have shown great potential in recommender systems, either improving existing recommendation models or serving as the backbone. However, there exists a large semantic gap between LLMs and recommender systems, since items to be recommended are often indexed by discrete identifiers (item ID) out of the LLM's vocabulary. In essence, LLMs capture language semantics while recommender systems imply collaborative semantics, making it difficult to sufficiently leverage the model capacity of LLMs for recommendation. To address this challenge, in this paper, we propose a new LLM-based recommendation model called LC-Rec, which can better integrate language and collaborative semantics for recommender systems. Our approach can directly generate items from the entire item set for recommendation, without relying on candidate items. Specifically, we make two major contributions in our approach. For item indexing, we design a learning-based vector quantization method with uniform semantic mapping, which can assign meaningful and non-conflicting IDs (called item indices) for items. For alignment tuning, we propose a series of specially designed tuning tasks to enhance the integration of collaborative semantics in LLMs. Our fine-tuning tasks enforce LLMs to deeply integrate language and collaborative semantics (characterized by the learned item indices), so as to achieve an effective adaptation to recommender systems. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our method, showing that our approach can outperform a number of competitive baselines including traditional recommenders and existing LLM-based recommenders. Our code is available at https://github.com/RUCAIBox/LC-Rec/.
Though significant progress in human pose and shape recovery from monocular RGB images has been made in recent years, obtaining 3D human motion with high accuracy and temporal consistency from videos remains challenging. Existing video-based methods tend to reconstruct human motion from global image features, which lack detailed representation capability and limit the reconstruction accuracy. In this paper, we propose a Temporal-Aware Refining Network (TAR), to synchronously explore temporal-aware global and local image features for accurate pose and shape recovery. First, a global transformer encoder is introduced to obtain temporal global features from static feature sequences. Second, a bidirectional ConvGRU network takes the sequence of high-resolution feature maps as input, and outputs temporal local feature maps that maintain high resolution and capture the local motion of the human body. Finally, a recurrent refinement module iteratively updates estimated SMPL parameters by leveraging both global and local temporal information to achieve accurate and smooth results. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our TAR obtains more accurate results than previous state-of-the-art methods on popular benchmarks, i.e., 3DPW, MPI-INF-3DHP, and Human3.6M.
Coarse-grained (CG) models play a crucial role in the study of protein structures, protein thermodynamic properties, and protein conformation dynamics. Due to the information loss in the coarse-graining process, backmapping from CG to all-atom configurations is essential in many protein design and drug discovery applications when detailed atomic representations are needed for in-depth studies. Despite recent progress in data-driven backmapping approaches, devising a backmapping method that can be universally applied across various CG models and proteins remains unresolved. In this work, we propose BackDiff, a new generative model designed to achieve generalization and reliability in the protein backmapping problem. BackDiff leverages the conditional score-based diffusion model with geometric representations. Since different CG models can contain different coarse-grained sites which include selected atoms (CG atoms) and simple CG auxiliary functions of atomistic coordinates (CG auxiliary variables), we design a self-supervised training framework to adapt to different CG atoms, and constrain the diffusion sampling paths with arbitrary CG auxiliary variables as conditions. Our method facilitates end-to-end training and allows efficient sampling across different proteins and diverse CG models without the need for retraining. Comprehensive experiments over multiple popular CG models demonstrate BackDiff's superior performance to existing state-of-the-art approaches, and generalization and flexibility that these approaches cannot achieve. A pretrained BackDiff model can offer a convenient yet reliable plug-and-play solution for protein researchers, enabling them to investigate further from their own CG models.
In this paper, we propose a semantic-aware joint communication and computation resource allocation framework for MEC systems. In the considered system, random tasks arrive at each terminal device (TD), which needs to be computed locally or offloaded to the MEC server. To further release the transmission burden, each TD sends the small-size extracted semantic information of tasks to the server instead of the original large-size raw data. An optimization problem of joint semanticaware division factor, communication and computation resource management is formulated. The problem aims to minimize the energy consumption of the whole system, while satisfying longterm delay and processing rate constraints. To solve this problem, an online low-complexity algorithm is proposed. In particular, Lyapunov optimization is utilized to decompose the original coupled long-term problem into a series of decoupled deterministic problems without requiring the realizations of future task arrivals and channel gains. Then, the block coordinate descent method and successive convex approximation algorithm are adopted to solve the current time slot deterministic problem by observing the current system states. Moreover, the closed-form optimal solution of each optimization variable is provided. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm yields up to 41.8% energy reduction compared to its counterpart without semantic-aware allocation.
In this paper, a semantic-aware joint communication and computation resource allocation framework is proposed for mobile edge computing (MEC) systems. In the considered system, each terminal device (TD) has a computation task, which needs to be executed by offloading to the MEC server. To further decrease the transmission burden, each TD sends the small-size extracted semantic information of tasks to the server instead of the large-size raw data. An optimization problem of joint semantic-aware division factor, communication and computation resource management is formulated. The problem aims to minimize the maximum execution delay of all TDs while satisfying energy consumption constraints. The original non-convex problem is transformed into a convex one based on the geometric programming and the optimal solution is obtained by the alternating optimization algorithm. Moreover, the closed-form optimal solution of the semantic extraction factor is derived. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm yields up to 37.10% delay reduction compared with the benchmark algorithm without semantic-aware allocation. Furthermore, small semantic extraction factors are preferred in the case of large task sizes and poor channel conditions.
This paper proposes a learning model of online ad auctions that allows for the following four key realistic characteristics of contemporary online auctions: (1) ad slots can have different values and click-through rates depending on users' search queries, (2) the number and identity of competing advertisers are unobserved and change with each auction, (3) advertisers only receive partial, aggregated feedback, and (4) payment rules are only partially specified. We model advertisers as agents governed by an adversarial bandit algorithm, independent of auction mechanism intricacies. Our objective is to simulate the behavior of advertisers for counterfactual analysis, prediction, and inference purposes. Our findings reveal that, in such richer environments, "soft floors" can enhance key performance metrics even when bidders are drawn from the same population. We further demonstrate how to infer advertiser value distributions from observed bids, thereby affirming the practical efficacy of our approach even in a more realistic auction setting.
In this paper, we study joint batching and (task) scheduling to maximise the throughput (i.e., the number of completed tasks) under the practical assumptions of heterogeneous task arrivals and deadlines. The design aims to optimise the number of batches, their starting time instants, and the task-batch association that determines batch sizes. The joint optimisation problem is complex due to multiple coupled variables as mentioned and numerous constraints including heterogeneous tasks arrivals and deadlines, the causality requirements on multi-task execution, and limited radio resources. Underpinning the problem is a basic tradeoff between the size of batch and waiting time for tasks in the batch to be uploaded and executed. Our approach of solving the formulated mixed-integer problem is to transform it into a convex problem via integer relaxation method and $\ell_0$-norm approximation. This results in an efficient alternating optimization algorithm for finding a close-to-optimal solution. In addition, we also design the optimal algorithm from leveraging spectrum holes, which are caused by fixed bandwidth allocation to devices and their asynchronized multi-batch task execution, to admit unscheduled tasks so as to further enhance throughput. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed framework of joint batching and resource allocation can substantially enhance the throughput of multiuser edge-AI as opposed to a number of simpler benchmarking schemes, e.g., equal-bandwidth allocation, greedy batching and single-batch execution.
* Due to the limitation "The abstract field cannot be longer than 1,920
characters", the abstract here is shorter than that in the PDF file