In this work, we develop and release Llama 2, a collection of pretrained and fine-tuned large language models (LLMs) ranging in scale from 7 billion to 70 billion parameters. Our fine-tuned LLMs, called Llama 2-Chat, are optimized for dialogue use cases. Our models outperform open-source chat models on most benchmarks we tested, and based on our human evaluations for helpfulness and safety, may be a suitable substitute for closed-source models. We provide a detailed description of our approach to fine-tuning and safety improvements of Llama 2-Chat in order to enable the community to build on our work and contribute to the responsible development of LLMs.
Publicly deploying research chatbots is a nuanced topic involving necessary risk-benefit analyses. While there have recently been frequent discussions on whether it is responsible to deploy such models, there has been far less focus on the interaction paradigms and design approaches that the resulting interfaces should adopt, in order to achieve their goals more effectively. We aim to pose, ground, and attempt to answer HCI questions involved in this scope, by reporting on a mixed-methods user study conducted on a recent research chatbot. We find that abstract anthropomorphic representation for the agent has a significant effect on user's perception, that offering AI explainability may have an impact on feedback rates, and that two (diegetic and extradiegetic) levels of the chat experience should be intentionally designed. We offer design recommendations and areas of further focus for the research community.
We present a theory for the previously unexplained divergent behavior noticed in the training of large language models. We argue that the phenomenon is an artifact of the dominant optimization algorithm used for training, called Adam. We observe that Adam can enter a state in which the parameter update vector has a relatively large norm and is essentially uncorrelated with the direction of descent on the training loss landscape, leading to divergence. This artifact is more likely to be observed in the training of a deep model with a large batch size, which is the typical setting of large-scale language model training. To argue the theory, we present observations from the training runs of the language models of different scales: 7 billion, 30 billion, 65 billion, and 546 billion parameters.
We present BlenderBot 3, a 175B parameter dialogue model capable of open-domain conversation with access to the internet and a long-term memory, and having been trained on a large number of user defined tasks. We release both the model weights and code, and have also deployed the model on a public web page to interact with organic users. This technical report describes how the model was built (architecture, model and training scheme), and details of its deployment, including safety mechanisms. Human evaluations show its superiority to existing open-domain dialogue agents, including its predecessors (Roller et al., 2021; Komeili et al., 2022). Finally, we detail our plan for continual learning using the data collected from deployment, which will also be publicly released. The goal of this research program is thus to enable the community to study ever-improving responsible agents that learn through interaction.