Generation of plausible yet incorrect factual information, termed hallucination, is an unsolved issue in large language models. We study the ability of language models to deliberate on the responses they give in order to correct their mistakes. We develop the Chain-of-Verification (CoVe) method whereby the model first (i) drafts an initial response; then (ii) plans verification questions to fact-check its draft; (iii) answers those questions independently so the answers are not biased by other responses; and (iv) generates its final verified response. In experiments, we show CoVe decreases hallucinations across a variety of tasks, from list-based questions from Wikidata, closed book MultiSpanQA and longform text generation.
Publicly deploying research chatbots is a nuanced topic involving necessary risk-benefit analyses. While there have recently been frequent discussions on whether it is responsible to deploy such models, there has been far less focus on the interaction paradigms and design approaches that the resulting interfaces should adopt, in order to achieve their goals more effectively. We aim to pose, ground, and attempt to answer HCI questions involved in this scope, by reporting on a mixed-methods user study conducted on a recent research chatbot. We find that abstract anthropomorphic representation for the agent has a significant effect on user's perception, that offering AI explainability may have an impact on feedback rates, and that two (diegetic and extradiegetic) levels of the chat experience should be intentionally designed. We offer design recommendations and areas of further focus for the research community.
We present BlenderBot 3x, an update on the conversational model BlenderBot 3, which is now trained using organic conversation and feedback data from participating users of the system in order to improve both its skills and safety. We are publicly releasing the participating de-identified interaction data for use by the research community, in order to spur further progress. Training models with organic data is challenging because interactions with people "in the wild" include both high quality conversations and feedback, as well as adversarial and toxic behavior. We study techniques that enable learning from helpful teachers while avoiding learning from people who are trying to trick the model into unhelpful or toxic responses. BlenderBot 3x is both preferred in conversation to BlenderBot 3, and is shown to produce safer responses in challenging situations. While our current models are still far from perfect, we believe further improvement can be achieved by continued use of the techniques explored in this work.
Current dialogue research primarily studies pairwise (two-party) conversations, and does not address the everyday setting where more than two speakers converse together. In this work, we both collect and evaluate multi-party conversations to study this more general case. We use the LIGHT environment to construct grounded conversations, where each participant has an assigned character to role-play. We thus evaluate the ability of language models to act as one or more characters in such conversations. Models require two skills that pairwise-trained models appear to lack: (1) being able to decide when to talk; (2) producing coherent utterances grounded on multiple characters. We compare models trained on our new dataset to existing pairwise-trained dialogue models, as well as large language models with few-shot prompting. We find that our new dataset, MultiLIGHT, which we will publicly release, can help bring significant improvements in the group setting.
While language models have become more capable of producing compelling language, we find there are still gaps in maintaining consistency, especially when describing events in a dynamically changing world. We study the setting of generating narratives in an open world text adventure game, where a graph representation of the underlying game state can be used to train models that consume and output both grounded graph representations and natural language descriptions and actions. We build a large set of tasks by combining crowdsourced and simulated gameplays with a novel dataset of complex actions in order to to construct such models. We find it is possible to improve the consistency of action narration models by training on graph contexts and targets, even if graphs are not present at test time. This is shown both in automatic metrics and human evaluations. We plan to release our code, the new set of tasks, and best performing models.
Frozen models trained to mimic static datasets can never improve their performance. Models that can employ internet-retrieval for up-to-date information and obtain feedback from humans during deployment provide the promise of both adapting to new information, and improving their performance. In this work we study how to improve internet-driven conversational skills in such a learning framework. We collect deployment data, which we make publicly available, of human interactions, and collect various types of human feedback -- including binary quality measurements, free-form text feedback, and fine-grained reasons for failure. We then study various algorithms for improving from such feedback, including standard supervised learning, rejection sampling, model-guiding and reward-based learning, in order to make recommendations on which type of feedback and algorithms work best. We find the recently introduced Director model (Arora et al., '22) shows significant improvements over other existing approaches.
We present BlenderBot 3, a 175B parameter dialogue model capable of open-domain conversation with access to the internet and a long-term memory, and having been trained on a large number of user defined tasks. We release both the model weights and code, and have also deployed the model on a public web page to interact with organic users. This technical report describes how the model was built (architecture, model and training scheme), and details of its deployment, including safety mechanisms. Human evaluations show its superiority to existing open-domain dialogue agents, including its predecessors (Roller et al., 2021; Komeili et al., 2022). Finally, we detail our plan for continual learning using the data collected from deployment, which will also be publicly released. The goal of this research program is thus to enable the community to study ever-improving responsible agents that learn through interaction.