Survival prediction plays a crucial role in assisting clinicians with the development of cancer treatment protocols. Recent evidence shows that multimodal data can help in the diagnosis of cancer disease and improve survival prediction. Currently, deep learning-based approaches have experienced increasing success in survival prediction by integrating pathological images and gene expression data. However, most existing approaches overlook the intra-modality latent information and the complex inter-modality correlations. Furthermore, existing modalities do not fully exploit the immense representational capabilities of neural networks for feature aggregation and disregard the importance of relationships between features. Therefore, it is highly recommended to address these issues in order to enhance the prediction performance by proposing a novel deep learning-based method. We propose a novel framework named Two-stream Transformer-based Multimodal Fusion Network for survival prediction (TTMFN), which integrates pathological images and gene expression data. In TTMFN, we present a two-stream multimodal co-attention transformer module to take full advantage of the complex relationships between different modalities and the potential connections within the modalities. Additionally, we develop a multi-head attention pooling approach to effectively aggregate the feature representations of the two modalities. The experiment results on four datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas demonstrate that TTMFN can achieve the best performance or competitive results compared to the state-of-the-art methods in predicting the overall survival of patients.
Continual learning is a desirable feature in many modern machine learning applications, which allows in-field adaptation and updating, ranging from accommodating distribution shift, to fine-tuning, and to learning new tasks. For applications with privacy and low latency requirements, the compute and memory demands imposed by continual learning can be cost-prohibitive for resource-constraint edge platforms. Reducing computational precision through fully quantized training (FQT) simultaneously reduces memory footprint and increases compute efficiency for both training and inference. However, aggressive quantization especially integer FQT typically degrades model accuracy to unacceptable levels. In this paper, we propose a technique that leverages inexpensive Hadamard transforms to enable low-precision training with only integer matrix multiplications. We further determine which tensors need stochastic rounding and propose tiled matrix multiplication to enable low-bit width accumulators. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our technique on several human activity recognition datasets and CIFAR100 in a class incremental learning setting. We achieve less than 0.5% and 3% accuracy degradation while we quantize all matrix multiplications inputs down to 4-bits with 8-bit accumulators.
Passive acoustic monitoring can be an effective way of monitoring wildlife populations that are acoustically active but difficult to survey visually. Digital recorders allow surveyors to gather large volumes of data at low cost, but identifying target species vocalisations in these data is non-trivial. Machine learning (ML) methods are often used to do the identification. They can process large volumes of data quickly, but they do not detect all vocalisations and they do generate some false positives (vocalisations that are not from the target species). Existing wildlife abundance survey methods have been designed specifically to deal with the first of these mistakes, but current methods of dealing with false positives are not well-developed. They do not take account of features of individual vocalisations, some of which are more likely to be false positives than others. We propose three methods for acoustic spatial capture-recapture inference that integrate individual-level measures of confidence from ML vocalisation identification into the likelihood and hence integrate ML uncertainty into inference. The methods include a mixture model in which species identity is a latent variable. We test the methods by simulation and find that in a scenario based on acoustic data from Hainan gibbons, in which ignoring false positives results in 17% positive bias, our methods give negligible bias and coverage probabilities that are close to the nominal 95% level.
In recent years we have witnessed an increasing number of interactive systems on handheld mobile devices which utilise gaze as a single or complementary interaction modality. This trend is driven by the enhanced computational power of these devices, higher resolution and capacity of their cameras, and improved gaze estimation accuracy obtained from advanced machine learning techniques, especially in deep learning. As the literature is fast progressing, there is a pressing need to review the state of the art, delineate the boundary, and identify the key research challenges and opportunities in gaze estimation and interaction. This paper aims to serve this purpose by presenting an end-to-end holistic view in this area, from gaze capturing sensors, to gaze estimation workflows, to deep learning techniques, and to gaze interactive applications.
Since data scarcity and data heterogeneity are prevailing for medical images, well-trained Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) using previous normalization methods may perform poorly when deployed to a new site. However, a reliable model for real-world clinical applications should be able to generalize well both on in-distribution (IND) and out-of-distribution (OOD) data (e.g., the new site data). In this study, we present a novel normalization technique called window normalization (WIN) to improve the model generalization on heterogeneous medical images, which is a simple yet effective alternative to existing normalization methods. Specifically, WIN perturbs the normalizing statistics with the local statistics computed on the window of features. This feature-level augmentation technique regularizes the models well and improves their OOD generalization significantly. Taking its advantage, we propose a novel self-distillation method called WIN-WIN for classification tasks. WIN-WIN is easily implemented with twice forward passes and a consistency constraint, which can be a simple extension for existing methods. Extensive experimental results on various tasks (6 tasks) and datasets (24 datasets) demonstrate the generality and effectiveness of our methods.
Since data scarcity and data heterogeneity are prevailing for medical images, well-trained Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) using previous normalization methods may perform poorly when deployed to a new site. However, a reliable model for real-world applications should be able to generalize well both on in-distribution (IND) and out-of-distribution (OOD) data (e.g., the new site data). In this study, we present a novel normalization technique called window normalization (WIN), which is a simple yet effective alternative to existing normalization methods. Specifically, WIN perturbs the normalizing statistics with the local statistics computed on a window of features. This feature-level augmentation technique regularizes the models well and improves their OOD generalization significantly. Taking its advantage, we propose a novel self-distillation method called WIN-WIN to further improve the OOD generalization in classification. WIN-WIN is easily implemented with twice forward passes and a consistency constraint, which can be a simple extension for existing methods. Extensive experimental results on various tasks (such as glaucoma detection, breast cancer detection, chromosome classification, optic disc and cup segmentation, etc.) and datasets (26 datasets) demonstrate the generality and effectiveness of our methods. The code is available at https://github.com/joe1chief/windowNormalizaion.
Precise and rapid categorization of images in the B-scan ultrasound modality is vital for diagnosing ocular diseases. Nevertheless, distinguishing various diseases in ultrasound still challenges experienced ophthalmologists. Thus a novel contrastive disentangled network (CDNet) is developed in this work, aiming to tackle the fine-grained image categorization (FGIC) challenges of ocular abnormalities in ultrasound images, including intraocular tumor (IOT), retinal detachment (RD), posterior scleral staphyloma (PSS), and vitreous hemorrhage (VH). Three essential components of CDNet are the weakly-supervised lesion localization module (WSLL), contrastive multi-zoom (CMZ) strategy, and hyperspherical contrastive disentangled loss (HCD-Loss), respectively. These components facilitate feature disentanglement for fine-grained recognition in both the input and output aspects. The proposed CDNet is validated on our ZJU Ocular Ultrasound Dataset (ZJUOUSD), consisting of 5213 samples. Furthermore, the generalization ability of CDNet is validated on two public and widely-used chest X-ray FGIC benchmarks. Quantitative and qualitative results demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed CDNet, which achieves state-of-the-art performance in the FGIC task. Code is available at: https://github.com/ZeroOneGame/CDNet-for-OUS-FGIC .
The early diagnosis and screening of glaucoma are important for patients to receive treatment in time and maintain eyesight. Nowadays, deep learning (DL) based models have been successfully used for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of glaucoma from retina fundus images. However, a DL model pre-trained using a dataset from one hospital center may have poor performance on a dataset from another new hospital center and therefore its applications in the real scene are limited. In this paper, we propose a self-adaptive transfer learning (SATL) strategy to fill the domain gap between multicenter datasets. Specifically, the encoder of a DL model that is pre-trained on the source domain is used to initialize the encoder of a reconstruction model. Then, the reconstruction model is trained using only unlabeled image data from the target domain, which makes the encoder in the model adapt itself to extract useful high-level features both for target domain images encoding and glaucoma classification, simultaneously. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed SATL strategy is effective in the domain adaptation task between a private and two public glaucoma diagnosis datasets, i.e. pri-RFG, REFUGE, and LAG. Moreover, the proposed strategy is completely independent of the source domain data, which meets the real scene application and the privacy protection policy.
Sensor-based human activity recognition (HAR), i.e., the ability to discover human daily activity patterns from wearable or embedded sensors, is a key enabler for many real-world applications in smart homes, personal healthcare, and urban planning. However, with an increasing number of applications being deployed, an important question arises: how can a HAR system autonomously learn new activities over a long period of time without being re-engineered from scratch? This problem is known as continual learning and has been particularly popular in the domain of computer vision, where several techniques to attack it have been developed. This paper aims to assess to what extent such continual learning techniques can be applied to the HAR domain. To this end, we propose a general framework to evaluate the performance of such techniques on various types of commonly used HAR datasets. We then present a comprehensive empirical analysis of their computational cost and effectiveness of tackling HAR-specific challenges (i.e., sensor noise and labels' scarcity). The presented results uncover useful insights on their applicability and suggest future research directions for HAR systems. Our code, models and data are available at https://github.com/srvCodes/continual-learning-benchmark.
Given the growing trend of continual learning techniques for deep neural networks focusing on the domain of computer vision, there is a need to identify which of these generalizes well to other tasks such as human activity recognition (HAR). As recent methods have mostly been composed of loss regularization terms and memory replay, we provide a constituent-wise analysis of some prominent task-incremental learning techniques employing these on HAR datasets. We find that most regularization approaches lack substantial effect and provide an intuition of when they fail. Thus, we make the case that the development of continual learning algorithms should be motivated by rather diverse task domains.