In mobile manipulation (MM), robots can both navigate within and interact with their environment and are thus able to complete many more tasks than robots only capable of navigation or manipulation. In this work, we explore how to apply imitation learning (IL) to learn continuous visuo-motor policies for MM tasks. Much prior work has shown that IL can train visuo-motor policies for either manipulation or navigation domains, but few works have applied IL to the MM domain. Doing this is challenging for two reasons: on the data side, current interfaces make collecting high-quality human demonstrations difficult, and on the learning side, policies trained on limited data can suffer from covariate shift when deployed. To address these problems, we first propose Mobile Manipulation RoboTurk (MoMaRT), a novel teleoperation framework allowing simultaneous navigation and manipulation of mobile manipulators, and collect a first-of-its-kind large scale dataset in a realistic simulated kitchen setting. We then propose a learned error detection system to address the covariate shift by detecting when an agent is in a potential failure state. We train performant IL policies and error detectors from this data, and achieve over 45% task success rate and 85% error detection success rate across multiple multi-stage tasks when trained on expert data. Codebase, datasets, visualization, and more available at https://sites.google.com/view/il-for-mm/home.
Learning performant robot manipulation policies can be challenging due to high-dimensional continuous actions and complex physics-based dynamics. This can be alleviated through intelligent choice of action space. Operational Space Control (OSC) has been used as an effective task-space controller for manipulation. Nonetheless, its strength depends on the underlying modeling fidelity, and is prone to failure when there are modeling errors. In this work, we propose OSC for Adaptation and Robustness (OSCAR), a data-driven variant of OSC that compensates for modeling errors by inferring relevant dynamics parameters from online trajectories. OSCAR decomposes dynamics learning into task-agnostic and task-specific phases, decoupling the dynamics dependencies of the robot and the extrinsics due to its environment. This structure enables robust zero-shot performance under out-of-distribution and rapid adaptation to significant domain shifts through additional finetuning. We evaluate our method on a variety of simulated manipulation problems, and find substantial improvements over an array of controller baselines. For more results and information, please visit https://cremebrule.github.io/oscar-web/.
Imitating human demonstrations is a promising approach to endow robots with various manipulation capabilities. While recent advances have been made in imitation learning and batch (offline) reinforcement learning, a lack of open-source human datasets and reproducible learning methods make assessing the state of the field difficult. In this paper, we conduct an extensive study of six offline learning algorithms for robot manipulation on five simulated and three real-world multi-stage manipulation tasks of varying complexity, and with datasets of varying quality. Our study analyzes the most critical challenges when learning from offline human data for manipulation. Based on the study, we derive a series of lessons including the sensitivity to different algorithmic design choices, the dependence on the quality of the demonstrations, and the variability based on the stopping criteria due to the different objectives in training and evaluation. We also highlight opportunities for learning from human datasets, such as the ability to learn proficient policies on challenging, multi-stage tasks beyond the scope of current reinforcement learning methods, and the ability to easily scale to natural, real-world manipulation scenarios where only raw sensory signals are available. We have open-sourced our datasets and all algorithm implementations to facilitate future research and fair comparisons in learning from human demonstration data. Codebase, datasets, trained models, and more available at https://arise-initiative.github.io/robomimic-web/
Imitation Learning (IL) is a powerful paradigm to teach robots to perform manipulation tasks by allowing them to learn from human demonstrations collected via teleoperation, but has mostly been limited to single-arm manipulation. However, many real-world tasks require multiple arms, such as lifting a heavy object or assembling a desk. Unfortunately, applying IL to multi-arm manipulation tasks has been challenging -- asking a human to control more than one robotic arm can impose significant cognitive burden and is often only possible for a maximum of two robot arms. To address these challenges, we present Multi-Arm RoboTurk (MART), a multi-user data collection platform that allows multiple remote users to simultaneously teleoperate a set of robotic arms and collect demonstrations for multi-arm tasks. Using MART, we collected demonstrations for five novel two and three-arm tasks from several geographically separated users. From our data we arrived at a critical insight: most multi-arm tasks do not require global coordination throughout its full duration, but only during specific moments. We show that learning from such data consequently presents challenges for centralized agents that directly attempt to model all robot actions simultaneously, and perform a comprehensive study of different policy architectures with varying levels of centralization on our tasks. Finally, we propose and evaluate a base-residual policy framework that allows trained policies to better adapt to the mixed coordination setting common in multi-arm manipulation, and show that a centralized policy augmented with a decentralized residual model outperforms all other models on our set of benchmark tasks. Additional results and videos at https://roboturk.stanford.edu/multiarm .
robosuite is a simulation framework for robot learning powered by the MuJoCo physics engine. It offers a modular design for creating robotic tasks as well as a suite of benchmark environments for reproducible research. This paper discusses the key system modules and the benchmark environments of our new release robosuite v1.0.