Self-consistency with chain-of-thought prompting (CoT) has demonstrated remarkable performance gains on various challenging tasks, by utilizing multiple reasoning paths sampled from large language models (LLMs). However, self-consistency relies on the answer extraction process to aggregate multiple solutions, which is not applicable to free-form answers. In this work, we propose Universal Self-Consistency (USC), which leverages LLMs themselves to select the most consistent answer among multiple candidates. We evaluate USC on a variety of benchmarks, including mathematical reasoning, code generation, long-context summarization, and open-ended question answering. On open-ended generation tasks where the original self-consistency method is not applicable, USC effectively utilizes multiple samples and improves the performance. For mathematical reasoning, USC matches the standard self-consistency performance without requiring the answer formats to be similar. Finally, without access to execution results, USC also matches the execution-based voting performance on code generation.
We show that the majority of the inference computations for large generative models such as LLaMA and OPT can be performed with both weights and activations being cast to 4 bits, in a way that leads to practical speedups while at the same time maintaining good accuracy. We achieve this via a hybrid quantization strategy called QUIK, which compresses most of the weights and activations to 4-bit, while keeping some outlier weights and activations in higher-precision. Crucially, our scheme is designed with computational efficiency in mind: we provide GPU kernels with highly-efficient layer-wise runtimes, which lead to practical end-to-end throughput improvements of up to 3.1x relative to FP16 execution. Code and models are provided at https://github.com/IST-DASLab/QUIK.
LLMs have shown great capabilities in various tasks but also exhibited memorization of training data, thus raising tremendous privacy and copyright concerns. While prior work has studied memorization during pre-training, the exploration of memorization during fine-tuning is rather limited. Compared with pre-training, fine-tuning typically involves sensitive data and diverse objectives, thus may bring unique memorization behaviors and distinct privacy risks. In this work, we conduct the first comprehensive analysis to explore LMs' memorization during fine-tuning across tasks. Our studies with open-sourced and our own fine-tuned LMs across various tasks indicate that fine-tuned memorization presents a strong disparity among tasks. We provide an understanding of this task disparity via sparse coding theory and unveil a strong correlation between memorization and attention score distribution. By investigating its memorization behavior, multi-task fine-tuning paves a potential strategy to mitigate fine-tuned memorization.
Text-to-image generative models based on latent diffusion models (LDM) have demonstrated their outstanding ability in generating high-quality and high-resolution images according to language prompt. Based on these powerful latent diffusion models, various fine-tuning methods have been proposed to achieve the personalization of text-to-image diffusion models such as artistic style adaptation and human face transfer. However, the unauthorized usage of data for model personalization has emerged as a prevalent concern in relation to copyright violations. For example, a malicious user may use the fine-tuning technique to generate images which mimic the style of a painter without his/her permission. In light of this concern, we have proposed FT-Shield, a watermarking approach specifically designed for the fine-tuning of text-to-image diffusion models to aid in detecting instances of infringement. We develop a novel algorithm for the generation of the watermark to ensure that the watermark on the training images can be quickly and accurately transferred to the generated images of text-to-image diffusion models. A watermark will be detected on an image by a binary watermark detector if the image is generated by a model that has been fine-tuned using the protected watermarked images. Comprehensive experiments were conducted to validate the effectiveness of FT-Shield.
ChatGPT is one of the most popular language models which achieve amazing performance on various natural language tasks. Consequently, there is also an urgent need to detect the texts generated ChatGPT from human written. One of the extensively studied methods trains classification models to distinguish both. However, existing studies also demonstrate that the trained models may suffer from distribution shifts (during test), i.e., they are ineffective to predict the generated texts from unseen language tasks or topics. In this work, we aim to have a comprehensive investigation on these methods' generalization behaviors under distribution shift caused by a wide range of factors, including prompts, text lengths, topics, and language tasks. To achieve this goal, we first collect a new dataset with human and ChatGPT texts, and then we conduct extensive studies on the collected dataset. Our studies unveil insightful findings which provide guidance for developing future methodologies or data collection strategies for ChatGPT detection.
Despite their competitive performance on knowledge-intensive tasks, large language models (LLMs) still have limitations in memorizing all world knowledge especially long tail knowledge. In this paper, we study the KG-augmented language model approach for solving the knowledge graph question answering (KGQA) task that requires rich world knowledge. Existing work has shown that retrieving KG knowledge to enhance LLMs prompting can significantly improve LLMs performance in KGQA. However, their approaches lack a well-formed verbalization of KG knowledge, i.e., they ignore the gap between KG representations and textual representations. To this end, we propose an answer-sensitive KG-to-Text approach that can transform KG knowledge into well-textualized statements most informative for KGQA. Based on this approach, we propose a KG-to-Text enhanced LLMs framework for solving the KGQA task. Experiments on several KGQA benchmarks show that the proposed KG-to-Text augmented LLMs approach outperforms previous KG-augmented LLMs approaches regarding answer accuracy and usefulness of knowledge statements.
We introduce a new deep generative model useful for uncertainty quantification: the Morse neural network, which generalizes the unnormalized Gaussian densities to have modes of high-dimensional submanifolds instead of just discrete points. Fitting the Morse neural network via a KL-divergence loss yields 1) a (unnormalized) generative density, 2) an OOD detector, 3) a calibration temperature, 4) a generative sampler, along with in the supervised case 5) a distance aware-classifier. The Morse network can be used on top of a pre-trained network to bring distance-aware calibration w.r.t the training data. Because of its versatility, the Morse neural networks unifies many techniques: e.g., the Entropic Out-of-Distribution Detector of (Mac\^edo et al., 2021) in OOD detection, the one class Deep Support Vector Description method of (Ruff et al., 2018) in anomaly detection, or the Contrastive One Class classifier in continuous learning (Sun et al., 2021). The Morse neural network has connections to support vector machines, kernel methods, and Morse theory in topology.
Localization of the narrowest position of the vessel and corresponding vessel and remnant vessel delineation in carotid ultrasound (US) are essential for carotid stenosis grading (CSG) in clinical practice. However, the pipeline is time-consuming and tough due to the ambiguous boundaries of plaque and temporal variation. To automatize this procedure, a large number of manual delineations are usually required, which is not only laborious but also not reliable given the annotation difficulty. In this study, we present the first video classification framework for automatic CSG. Our contribution is three-fold. First, to avoid the requirement of laborious and unreliable annotation, we propose a novel and effective video classification network for weakly-supervised CSG. Second, to ease the model training, we adopt an inflation strategy for the network, where pre-trained 2D convolution weights can be adapted into the 3D counterpart in our network for an effective warm start. Third, to enhance the feature discrimination of the video, we propose a novel attention-guided multi-dimension fusion (AMDF) transformer encoder to model and integrate global dependencies within and across spatial and temporal dimensions, where two lightweight cross-dimensional attention mechanisms are designed. Our approach is extensively validated on a large clinically collected carotid US video dataset, demonstrating state-of-the-art performance compared with strong competitors.
We focus on the challenge of out-of-distribution (OOD) detection in deep learning models, a crucial aspect in ensuring reliability. Despite considerable effort, the problem remains significantly challenging in deep learning models due to their propensity to output over-confident predictions for OOD inputs. We propose a novel one-class open-set OOD detector that leverages text-image pre-trained models in a zero-shot fashion and incorporates various descriptions of in-domain and OOD. Our approach is designed to detect anything not in-domain and offers the flexibility to detect a wide variety of OOD, defined via fine- or coarse-grained labels, or even in natural language. We evaluate our approach on challenging benchmarks including large-scale datasets containing fine-grained, semantically similar classes, distributionally shifted images, and multi-object images containing a mixture of in-domain and OOD objects. Our method shows superior performance over previous methods on all benchmarks. Code is available at https://github.com/gyhandy/One-Class-Anything