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We consider a discrete-time system where a resource-constrained source (e.g., a small sensor) transmits its time-sensitive data to a destination over a time-varying wireless channel. Each transmission incurs a fixed transmission cost (e.g., energy cost), and no transmission results in a staleness cost represented by the Age-of-Information. The source must balance the tradeoff between transmission and staleness costs. To address this challenge, we develop a robust online algorithm to minimize the sum of transmission and staleness costs, ensuring a worst-case performance guarantee. While online algorithms are robust, they are usually overly conservative and may have a poor average performance in typical scenarios. In contrast, by leveraging historical data and prediction models, machine learning (ML) algorithms perform well in average cases. However, they typically lack worst-case performance guarantees. To achieve the best of both worlds, we design a learning-augmented online algorithm that exhibits two desired properties: (i) consistency: closely approximating the optimal offline algorithm when the ML prediction is accurate and trusted; (ii) robustness: ensuring worst-case performance guarantee even ML predictions are inaccurate. Finally, we perform extensive simulations to show that our online algorithm performs well empirically and that our learning-augmented algorithm achieves both consistency and robustness.

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In this paper, we study the two-level ski-rental problem,where a user needs to fulfill a sequence of demands for multiple items by choosing one of the three payment options: paying for the on-demand usage (i.e., rent), buying individual items (i.e., single purchase), and buying all the items (i.e., combo purchase). Without knowing future demands, the user aims to minimize the total cost (i.e., the sum of the rental, single purchase, and combo purchase costs) by balancing the trade-off between the expensive upfront costs (for purchase) and the potential future expenses (for rent). We first design a robust online algorithm (RDTSR) that offers a worst-case performance guarantee. While online algorithms are robust against the worst-case scenarios, they are often overly cautious and thus suffer a poor average performance in typical scenarios. On the other hand, Machine Learning (ML) algorithms typically show promising average performance in various applications but lack worst-case performance guarantees. To harness the benefits of both methods, we develop a learning-augmented algorithm (LADTSR) by integrating ML predictions into the robust online algorithm, which outperforms the robust online algorithm under accurate predictions while ensuring worst-case performance guarantees even when predictions are inaccurate. Finally, we conduct numerical experiments on both synthetic and real-world trace data to corroborate the effectiveness of our approach.

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In this paper, we study the role of feedback in online learning with switching costs. It has been shown that the minimax regret is $\widetilde{\Theta}(T^{2/3})$ under bandit feedback and improves to $\widetilde{\Theta}(\sqrt{T})$ under full-information feedback, where $T$ is the length of the time horizon. However, it remains largely unknown how the amount and type of feedback generally impact regret. To this end, we first consider the setting of bandit learning with extra observations; that is, in addition to the typical bandit feedback, the learner can freely make a total of $B_{\mathrm{ex}}$ extra observations. We fully characterize the minimax regret in this setting, which exhibits an interesting phase-transition phenomenon: when $B_{\mathrm{ex}} = O(T^{2/3})$, the regret remains $\widetilde{\Theta}(T^{2/3})$, but when $B_{\mathrm{ex}} = \Omega(T^{2/3})$, it becomes $\widetilde{\Theta}(T/\sqrt{B_{\mathrm{ex}}})$, which improves as the budget $B_{\mathrm{ex}}$ increases. To design algorithms that can achieve the minimax regret, it is instructive to consider a more general setting where the learner has a budget of $B$ total observations. We fully characterize the minimax regret in this setting as well and show that it is $\widetilde{\Theta}(T/\sqrt{B})$, which scales smoothly with the total budget $B$. Furthermore, we propose a generic algorithmic framework, which enables us to design different learning algorithms that can achieve matching upper bounds for both settings based on the amount and type of feedback. One interesting finding is that while bandit feedback can still guarantee optimal regret when the budget is relatively limited, it no longer suffices to achieve optimal regret when the budget is relatively large.

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In this paper, we study kernelized bandits with distributed biased feedback. This problem is motivated by several real-world applications (such as dynamic pricing, cellular network configuration, and policy making), where users from a large population contribute to the reward of the action chosen by a central entity, but it is difficult to collect feedback from all users. Instead, only biased feedback (due to user heterogeneity) from a subset of users may be available. In addition to such partial biased feedback, we are also faced with two practical challenges due to communication cost and computation complexity. To tackle these challenges, we carefully design a new \emph{distributed phase-then-batch-based elimination (\texttt{DPBE})} algorithm, which samples users in phases for collecting feedback to reduce the bias and employs \emph{maximum variance reduction} to select actions in batches within each phase. By properly choosing the phase length, the batch size, and the confidence width used for eliminating suboptimal actions, we show that \texttt{DPBE} achieves a sublinear regret of $\tilde{O}(T^{1-\alpha/2}+\sqrt{\gamma_T T})$, where $\alpha\in (0,1)$ is the user-sampling parameter one can tune. Moreover, \texttt{DPBE} can significantly reduce both communication cost and computation complexity in distributed kernelized bandits, compared to some variants of the state-of-the-art algorithms (originally developed for standard kernelized bandits). Furthermore, by incorporating various \emph{differential privacy} models (including the central, local, and shuffle models), we generalize \texttt{DPBE} to provide privacy guarantees for users participating in the distributed learning process. Finally, we conduct extensive simulations to validate our theoretical results and evaluate the empirical performance.

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Convolution neural networks (CNNs) have achieved remarkable success, but typically accompany high computation cost and numerous redundant weight parameters. To reduce the FLOPs, structure pruning is a popular approach to remove the entire hidden structures via introducing coarse-grained sparsity. Meanwhile, plentiful pruning works leverage fine-grained sparsity instead (sparsity are randomly distributed), whereas their sparse models lack special designed computing library for potential speedup. In this technical report, we study and present an efficient convolution neural network inference system to accelerate its forward pass by utilizing the fine-grained sparsity of compressed CNNs. Our developed FSCNN is established based on a set of specialized designed sparse data structures, operators and associated algorithms. Experimentally, we validate that FSCNN outperforms standard deep learning library PyTorch on popular CNN architectures such as VGG16 if sufficiently high sparsity exhibits. However, due to the contiguity issue of sparse operators, FSCNN is typically not comparable with highly optimized dense operator. Therefore, coarse-grained (structured) sparsity is our recommendation for generic model compression.

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Breathing disorders such as sleep apnea is a critical disorder that affects a large number of individuals due to the insufficient capacity of the lungs to contain/exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide to ensure that the body is in the stable state of homeostasis. Respiratory Measurements such as minute ventilation can be used in correlation with other physiological measurements such as heart rate and heart rate variability for remote monitoring of health and detecting symptoms of such breathing related disorders. In this work, we formulate a deep learning based approach to measure remote ventilation on a private dataset. The dataset will be made public upon acceptance of this work. We use two versions of a deep neural network to estimate the minute ventilation from data streams obtained through wearable heart rate and respiratory devices. We demonstrate that the simple design of our pipeline - which includes lightweight deep neural networks - can be easily incorporate into real time health monitoring systems.

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In image super-resolution, both pixel-wise accuracy and perceptual fidelity are desirable. However, most deep learning methods only achieve high performance in one aspect due to the perception-distortion trade-off, and works that successfully balance the trade-off rely on fusing results from separately trained models with ad-hoc post-processing. In this paper, we propose a novel super-resolution model with a low-frequency constraint (LFc-SR), which balances the objective and perceptual quality through a single model and yields super-resolved images with high PSNR and perceptual scores. We further introduce an ADMM-based alternating optimization method for the non-trivial learning of the constrained model. Experiments showed that our method, without cumbersome post-processing procedures, achieved the state-of-the-art performance. The code is available at https://github.com/Yuehan717/PDASR.

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In this paper, we study the problem of global reward maximization with only partial distributed feedback. This problem is motivated by several real-world applications (e.g., cellular network configuration, dynamic pricing, and policy selection) where an action taken by a central entity influences a large population that contributes to the global reward. However, collecting such reward feedback from the entire population not only incurs a prohibitively high cost but often leads to privacy concerns. To tackle this problem, we consider differentially private distributed linear bandits, where only a subset of users from the population are selected (called clients) to participate in the learning process and the central server learns the global model from such partial feedback by iteratively aggregating these clients' local feedback in a differentially private fashion. We then propose a unified algorithmic learning framework, called differentially private distributed phased elimination (DP-DPE), which can be naturally integrated with popular differential privacy (DP) models (including central DP, local DP, and shuffle DP). Furthermore, we prove that DP-DPE achieves both sublinear regret and sublinear communication cost. Interestingly, DP-DPE also achieves privacy protection "for free" in the sense that the additional cost due to privacy guarantees is a lower-order additive term. In addition, as a by-product of our techniques, the same results of "free" privacy can also be achieved for the standard differentially private linear bandits. Finally, we conduct simulations to corroborate our theoretical results and demonstrate the effectiveness of DP-DPE.

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Multi-exit architectures consist of a backbone and branch classifiers that offer shortened inference pathways to reduce the run-time of deep neural networks. In this paper, we analyze different branching patterns that vary in their allocation of computational complexity for the branch classifiers. Constant-complexity branching keeps all branches the same, while complexity-increasing and complexity-decreasing branching place more complex branches later or earlier in the backbone respectively. Through extensive experimentation on multiple backbones and datasets, we find that complexity-decreasing branches are more effective than constant-complexity or complexity-increasing branches, which achieve the best accuracy-cost trade-off. We investigate a cause by using knowledge consistency to probe the effect of adding branches onto a backbone. Our findings show that complexity-decreasing branching yields the least disruption to the feature abstraction hierarchy of the backbone, which explains the effectiveness of the branching patterns.

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Video deblurring has achieved remarkable progress thanks to the success of deep neural networks. Most methods solve for the deblurring end-to-end with limited information propagation from the video sequence. However, different frame regions exhibit different characteristics and should be provided with corresponding relevant information. To achieve fine-grained deblurring, we designed a memory branch to memorize the blurry-sharp feature pairs in the memory bank, thus providing useful information for the blurry query input. To enrich the memory of our memory bank, we further designed a bidirectional recurrency and multi-scale strategy based on the memory bank. Experimental results demonstrate that our model outperforms other state-of-the-art methods while keeping the model complexity and inference time low. The code is available at https://github.com/jibo27/MemDeblur.

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