Link prediction attempts to predict whether an unseen edge exists based on only a portion of edges of a graph. A flurry of methods have been introduced in recent years that attempt to make use of graph neural networks (GNNs) for this task. Furthermore, new and diverse datasets have also been created to better evaluate the effectiveness of these new models. However, multiple pitfalls currently exist that hinder our ability to properly evaluate these new methods. These pitfalls mainly include: (1) Lower than actual performance on multiple baselines, (2) A lack of a unified data split and evaluation metric on some datasets, and (3) An unrealistic evaluation setting that uses easy negative samples. To overcome these challenges, we first conduct a fair comparison across prominent methods and datasets, utilizing the same dataset and hyperparameter search settings. We then create a more practical evaluation setting based on a Heuristic Related Sampling Technique (HeaRT), which samples hard negative samples via multiple heuristics. The new evaluation setting helps promote new challenges and opportunities in link prediction by aligning the evaluation with real-world situations. Our implementation and data are available at https://github.com/Juanhui28/HeaRT
Federated learning (FL) enables multiple clients to train models collaboratively without sharing local data, which has achieved promising results in different areas, including the Internet of Things (IoT). However, end IoT devices do not have abilities to automatically annotate their collected data, which leads to the label shortage issue at the client side. To collaboratively train an FL model, we can only use a small number of labeled data stored on the server. This is a new yet practical scenario in federated learning, i.e., labels-at-server semi-supervised federated learning (SemiFL). Although several SemiFL approaches have been proposed recently, none of them can focus on the personalization issue in their model design. IoT environments make SemiFL more challenging, as we need to take device computational constraints and communication cost into consideration simultaneously. To tackle these new challenges together, we propose a novel SemiFL framework named pFedKnow. pFedKnow generates lightweight personalized client models via neural network pruning techniques to reduce communication cost. Moreover, it incorporates pretrained large models as prior knowledge to guide the aggregation of personalized client models and further enhance the framework performance. Experiment results on both image and text datasets show that the proposed pFedKnow outperforms state-of-the-art baselines as well as reducing considerable communication cost. The source code of the proposed pFedKnow is available at https://github.com/JackqqWang/pfedknow/tree/master.
Federated Learning (FL), as a rapidly evolving privacy-preserving collaborative machine learning paradigm, is a promising approach to enable edge intelligence in the emerging Industrial Metaverse. Even though many successful use cases have proved the feasibility of FL in theory, in the industrial practice of Metaverse, the problems of non-independent and identically distributed (non-i.i.d.) data, learning forgetting caused by streaming industrial data, and scarce communication bandwidth remain key barriers to realize practical FL. Facing the above three challenges simultaneously, this paper presents a high-performance and efficient system named HFEDMS for incorporating practical FL into Industrial Metaverse. HFEDMS reduces data heterogeneity through dynamic grouping and training mode conversion (Dynamic Sequential-to-Parallel Training, STP). Then, it compensates for the forgotten knowledge by fusing compressed historical data semantics and calibrates classifier parameters (Semantic Compression and Compensation, SCC). Finally, the network parameters of the feature extractor and classifier are synchronized in different frequencies (Layer-wiseAlternative Synchronization Protocol, LASP) to reduce communication costs. These techniques make FL more adaptable to the heterogeneous streaming data continuously generated by industrial equipment, and are also more efficient in communication than traditional methods (e.g., Federated Averaging). Extensive experiments have been conducted on the streamed non-i.i.d. FEMNIST dataset using 368 simulated devices. Numerical results show that HFEDMS improves the classification accuracy by at least 6.4% compared with 8 benchmarks and saves both the overall runtime and transfer bytes by up to 98%, proving its superiority in precision and efficiency.
Federated learning (FL) is a rapidly growing privacy-preserving collaborative machine learning paradigm. In practical FL applications, local data from each data silo reflect local usage patterns. Therefore, there exists heterogeneity of data distributions among data owners (a.k.a. FL clients). If not handled properly, this can lead to model performance degradation. This challenge has inspired the research field of heterogeneous federated learning, which currently remains open. In this paper, we propose a data heterogeneity-robust FL approach, FedGSP, to address this challenge by leveraging on a novel concept of dynamic Sequential-to-Parallel (STP) collaborative training. FedGSP assigns FL clients to homogeneous groups to minimize the overall distribution divergence among groups, and increases the degree of parallelism by reassigning more groups in each round. It is also incorporated with a novel Inter-Cluster Grouping (ICG) algorithm to assist in group assignment, which uses the centroid equivalence theorem to simplify the NP-hard grouping problem to make it solvable. Extensive experiments have been conducted on the non-i.i.d. FEMNIST dataset. The results show that FedGSP improves the accuracy by 3.7% on average compared with seven state-of-the-art approaches, and reduces the training time and communication overhead by more than 90%.