Deep learning approaches exhibit promising performances on various text tasks. However, they are still struggling on medical text classification since samples are often extremely imbalanced and scarce. Different from existing mainstream approaches that focus on supplementary semantics with external medical information, this paper aims to rethink the data challenges in medical texts and present a novel framework-agnostic algorithm called Text2Tree that only utilizes internal label hierarchy in training deep learning models. We embed the ICD code tree structure of labels into cascade attention modules for learning hierarchy-aware label representations. Two new learning schemes, Similarity Surrogate Learning (SSL) and Dissimilarity Mixup Learning (DML), are devised to boost text classification by reusing and distinguishing samples of other labels following the label representation hierarchy, respectively. Experiments on authoritative public datasets and real-world medical records show that our approach stably achieves superior performances over classical and advanced imbalanced classification methods.
The success of ChatGPT has ignited an AI race, with researchers striving to develop new large language models (LLMs) that can match or surpass the language understanding and generation abilities of commercial ones. In recent times, a number of models have emerged, claiming performance near that of GPT-3.5 or GPT-4 through various instruction-tuning methods. As practitioners of Text-to-SQL parsing, we are grateful for their valuable contributions to open-source research. However, it is important to approach these claims with a sense of scrutiny and ascertain the actual effectiveness of these models. Therefore, we pit six popular large language models against each other, systematically evaluating their Text-to-SQL parsing capability on nine benchmark datasets with five different prompting strategies, covering both zero-shot and few-shot scenarios. Regrettably, the open-sourced models fell significantly short of the performance achieved by closed-source models like GPT-3.5, highlighting the need for further work to bridge the performance gap between these models.
Since annotating medical images for segmentation tasks commonly incurs expensive costs, it is highly desirable to design an annotation-efficient method to alleviate the annotation burden. Recently, contrastive learning has exhibited a great potential in learning robust representations to boost downstream tasks with limited labels. In medical imaging scenarios, ready-made meta labels (i.e., specific attribute information of medical images) inherently reveal semantic relationships among images, which have been used to define positive pairs in previous work. However, the multi-perspective semantics revealed by various meta labels are usually incompatible and can incur intractable "semantic contradiction" when combining different meta labels. In this paper, we tackle the issue of "semantic contradiction" in a gradient-guided manner using our proposed Gradient Mitigator method, which systematically unifies multi-perspective meta labels to enable a pre-trained model to attain a better high-level semantic recognition ability. Moreover, we emphasize that the fine-grained discrimination ability is vital for segmentation-oriented pre-training, and develop a novel method called Gradient Filter to dynamically screen pixel pairs with the most discriminating power based on the magnitude of gradients. Comprehensive experiments on four medical image segmentation datasets verify that our new method GCL: (1) learns informative image representations and considerably boosts segmentation performance with limited labels, and (2) shows promising generalizability on out-of-distribution datasets.
Many crucial scientific problems involve designing novel molecules with desired properties, which can be formulated as an expensive black-box optimization problem over the discrete chemical space. Computational methods have achieved initial success but still struggle with simultaneously optimizing multiple competing properties in a sample-efficient manner. In this work, we propose a multi-objective Bayesian optimization (MOBO) algorithm leveraging the hypernetwork-based GFlowNets (HN-GFN) as an acquisition function optimizer, with the purpose of sampling a diverse batch of candidate molecular graphs from an approximate Pareto front. Using a single preference-conditioned hypernetwork, HN-GFN learns to explore various trade-offs between objectives. Inspired by reinforcement learning, we further propose a hindsight-like off-policy strategy to share high-performing molecules among different preferences in order to speed up learning for HN-GFN. Through synthetic experiments, we illustrate that HN-GFN has adequate capacity to generalize over preferences. Extensive experiments show that our framework outperforms the best baselines by a large margin in terms of hypervolume in various real-world MOBO settings.
Though deep neural networks have gained enormous successes in various fields (e.g., computer vision) with supervised learning, they have so far been still trailing after the performances of GBDTs on tabular data. Delving into this task, we determine that a judicious handling of feature interactions and feature representation is crucial to the effectiveness of neural networks on tabular data. We develop a novel neural network called ExcelFormer, which alternates in turn between two attention modules that shrewdly manipulate feature interactions and feature representation updates, respectively. A bespoke training methodology is jointly introduced to facilitate model performances. Specifically, by initializing parameters with minuscule values, these attention modules are attenuated when the training begins, and the effects of feature interactions and representation updates grow progressively up to optimum levels under the guidance of our proposed specific regularization schemes Feat-Mix and Hidden-Mix as the training proceeds. Experiments on 28 public tabular datasets show that our ExcelFormer approach is superior to extensively-tuned GBDTs, which is an unprecedented progress of deep neural networks on supervised tabular learning.
Recent development of deep neural networks (DNNs) for tabular learning has largely benefited from the capability of DNNs for automatic feature interaction. However, the heterogeneity nature of tabular features makes such features relatively independent, and developing effective methods to promote tabular feature interaction still remains an open problem. In this paper, we propose a novel Graph Estimator, which automatically estimates the relations among tabular features and builds graphs by assigning edges between related features. Such relation graphs organize independent tabular features into a kind of graph data such that interaction of nodes (tabular features) can be conducted in an orderly fashion. Based on our proposed Graph Estimator, we present a bespoke Transformer network tailored for tabular learning, called T2G-Former, which processes tabular data by performing tabular feature interaction guided by the relation graphs. A specific Cross-level Readout collects salient features predicted by the layers in T2G-Former across different levels, and attains global semantics for final prediction. Comprehensive experiments show that our T2G-Former achieves superior performance among DNNs and is competitive with non-deep Gradient Boosted Decision Tree models.
In this paper, we reformulate the relation extraction task as mask language modeling and propose a novel adaptive prompt-based finetuning approach. We propose an adaptive label words selection mechanism that scatters the relation label into variable number of label tokens to handle the complex multiple label space. We further introduce an auxiliary entity discriminator object to encourage the model to focus on context representation learning. Extensive experiments on benchmark datasets demonstrate that our approach can achieve better performance on both the few-shot and supervised setting.