Until recently, the question of the effective inductive bias of deep models on tabular data has remained unanswered. This paper investigates the hypothesis that arithmetic feature interaction is necessary for deep tabular learning. To test this point, we create a synthetic tabular dataset with a mild feature interaction assumption and examine a modified transformer architecture enabling arithmetical feature interactions, referred to as AMFormer. Results show that AMFormer outperforms strong counterparts in fine-grained tabular data modeling, data efficiency in training, and generalization. This is attributed to its parallel additive and multiplicative attention operators and prompt-based optimization, which facilitate the separation of tabular samples in an extended space with arithmetically-engineered features. Our extensive experiments on real-world data also validate the consistent effectiveness, efficiency, and rationale of AMFormer, suggesting it has established a strong inductive bias for deep learning on tabular data. Code is available at https://github.com/aigc-apps/AMFormer.
* 11 pages, 8 figures, to be published to AAAI2024
Uveitis demands the precise diagnosis of anterior chamber inflammation (ACI) for optimal treatment. However, current diagnostic methods only rely on a limited single-modal disease perspective, which leads to poor performance. In this paper, we investigate a promising yet challenging way to fuse multimodal data for ACI diagnosis. Notably, existing fusion paradigms focus on empowering implicit modality interactions (i.e., self-attention and its variants), but neglect to inject explicit modality interactions, especially from clinical knowledge and imaging property. To this end, we propose a jointly Explicit and implicit Cross-Modal Interaction Network (EiCI-Net) for Anterior Chamber Inflammation Diagnosis that uses anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) images, slit-lamp images, and clinical data jointly. Specifically, we first develop CNN-Based Encoders and Tabular Processing Module (TPM) to extract efficient feature representations in different modalities. Then, we devise an Explicit Cross-Modal Interaction Module (ECIM) to generate attention maps as a kind of explicit clinical knowledge based on the tabular feature maps, then integrated them into the slit-lamp feature maps, allowing the CNN-Based Encoder to focus on more effective informativeness of the slit-lamp images. After that, the Implicit Cross-Modal Interaction Module (ICIM), a transformer-based network, further implicitly enhances modality interactions. Finally, we construct a considerable real-world dataset from our collaborative hospital and conduct sufficient experiments to demonstrate the superior performance of our proposed EiCI-Net compared with the state-of-the-art classification methods in various metrics.
Optical Intraoral Scanners (IOS) are widely used in digital dentistry to provide detailed 3D information of dental crowns and the gingiva. Accurate 3D tooth segmentation in IOSs is critical for various dental applications, while previous methods are error-prone at complicated boundaries and exhibit unsatisfactory results across patients. In this paper, we propose TSegFormer which captures both local and global dependencies among different teeth and the gingiva in the IOS point clouds with a multi-task 3D transformer architecture. Moreover, we design a geometry-guided loss based on a novel point curvature to refine boundaries in an end-to-end manner, avoiding time-consuming post-processing to reach clinically applicable segmentation. In addition, we create a dataset with 16,000 IOSs, the largest ever IOS dataset to the best of our knowledge. The experimental results demonstrate that our TSegFormer consistently surpasses existing state-of-the-art baselines. The superiority of TSegFormer is corroborated by extensive analysis, visualizations and real-world clinical applicability tests. Our code is available at https://github.com/huiminxiong/TSegFormer.
* MICCAI 2023, STAR(Student Travel) award. 11 pages, 3 figures, 5
tables. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2210.16627
Masked point modeling has become a promising scheme of self-supervised pre-training for point clouds. Existing methods reconstruct either the original points or related features as the objective of pre-training. However, considering the diversity of downstream tasks, it is necessary for the model to have both low- and high-level representation modeling capabilities to capture geometric details and semantic contexts during pre-training. To this end, M$^3$CS is proposed to enable the model with the above abilities. Specifically, with masked point cloud as input, M$^3$CS introduces two decoders to predict masked representations and the original points simultaneously. While an extra decoder doubles parameters for the decoding process and may lead to overfitting, we propose siamese decoders to keep the amount of learnable parameters unchanged. Further, we propose an online codebook projecting continuous tokens into discrete ones before reconstructing masked points. In such way, we can enforce the decoder to take effect through the combinations of tokens rather than remembering each token. Comprehensive experiments show that M$^3$CS achieves superior performance at both classification and segmentation tasks, outperforming existing methods.
Image ordinal regression has been mainly studied along the line of exploiting the order of categories. However, the issues of class imbalance and category overlap that are very common in ordinal regression were largely overlooked. As a result, the performance on minority categories is often unsatisfactory. In this paper, we propose a novel framework called CIG based on controllable image generation to directly tackle these two issues. Our main idea is to generate extra training samples with specific labels near category boundaries, and the sample generation is biased toward the less-represented categories. To achieve controllable image generation, we seek to separate structural and categorical information of images based on structural similarity, categorical similarity, and reconstruction constraints. We evaluate the effectiveness of our new CIG approach in three different image ordinal regression scenarios. The results demonstrate that CIG can be flexibly integrated with off-the-shelf image encoders or ordinal regression models to achieve improvement, and further, the improvement is more significant for minority categories.
* 8 pages, 12 figures, to be published in IJCAI2023
Surgery is the only viable treatment for cataract patients with visual acuity (VA) impairment. Clinically, to assess the necessity of cataract surgery, accurately predicting postoperative VA before surgery by analyzing multi-view optical coherence tomography (OCT) images is crucially needed. Unfortunately, due to complicated fundus conditions, determining postoperative VA remains difficult for medical experts. Deep learning methods for this problem were developed in recent years. Although effective, these methods still face several issues, such as not efficiently exploring potential relations between multi-view OCT images, neglecting the key role of clinical prior knowledge (e.g., preoperative VA value), and using only regression-based metrics which are lacking reference. In this paper, we propose a novel Cross-token Transformer Network (CTT-Net) for postoperative VA prediction by analyzing both the multi-view OCT images and preoperative VA. To effectively fuse multi-view features of OCT images, we develop cross-token attention that could restrict redundant/unnecessary attention flow. Further, we utilize the preoperative VA value to provide more information for postoperative VA prediction and facilitate fusion between views. Moreover, we design an auxiliary classification loss to improve model performance and assess VA recovery more sufficiently, avoiding the limitation by only using the regression metrics. To evaluate CTT-Net, we build a multi-view OCT image dataset collected from our collaborative hospital. A set of extensive experiments validate the effectiveness of our model compared to existing methods in various metrics. Code is available at: https://github.com/wjh892521292/Cataract OCT.
* 5 pages, 3 figures, accepted for publication in BIBM
Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have become widely-used models for semi-supervised learning. However, the robustness of GNNs in the presence of label noise remains a largely under-explored problem. In this paper, we consider an important yet challenging scenario where labels on nodes of graphs are not only noisy but also scarce. In this scenario, the performance of GNNs is prone to degrade due to label noise propagation and insufficient learning. To address these issues, we propose a novel RTGNN (Robust Training of Graph Neural Networks via Noise Governance) framework that achieves better robustness by learning to explicitly govern label noise. More specifically, we introduce self-reinforcement and consistency regularization as supplemental supervision. The self-reinforcement supervision is inspired by the memorization effects of deep neural networks and aims to correct noisy labels. Further, the consistency regularization prevents GNNs from overfitting to noisy labels via mimicry loss in both the inter-view and intra-view perspectives. To leverage such supervisions, we divide labels into clean and noisy types, rectify inaccurate labels, and further generate pseudo-labels on unlabeled nodes. Supervision for nodes with different types of labels is then chosen adaptively. This enables sufficient learning from clean labels while limiting the impact of noisy ones. We conduct extensive experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of our RTGNN framework, and the results validate its consistent superior performance over state-of-the-art methods with two types of label noises and various noise rates.
Electrocardiogram (ECG) is a widely used non-invasive diagnostic tool for heart diseases. Many studies have devised ECG analysis models (e.g., classifiers) to assist diagnosis. As an upstream task, researches have built generative models to synthesize ECG data, which are beneficial to providing training samples, privacy protection, and annotation reduction. However, previous generative methods for ECG often neither synthesized multi-view data, nor dealt with heart disease conditions. In this paper, we propose a novel disease-aware generative adversarial network for multi-view ECG synthesis called ME-GAN, which attains panoptic electrocardio representations conditioned on heart diseases and projects the representations onto multiple standard views to yield ECG signals. Since ECG manifestations of heart diseases are often localized in specific waveforms, we propose a new "mixup normalization" to inject disease information precisely into suitable locations. In addition, we propose a view discriminator to revert disordered ECG views into a pre-determined order, supervising the generator to obtain ECG representing correct view characteristics. Besides, a new metric, rFID, is presented to assess the quality of the synthesized ECG signals. Comprehensive experiments verify that our ME-GAN performs well on multi-view ECG signal synthesis with trusty morbid manifestations.
* In International Conference on Machine Learning, 3360--3370,
Many real-world scenarios, such as human activity recognition (HAR) in IoT, can be formalized as a multi-task multi-view learning problem. Each specific task consists of multiple shared feature views collected from multiple sources, either homogeneous or heterogeneous. Common among recent approaches is to employ a typical hard/soft sharing strategy at the initial phase separately for each view across tasks to uncover common knowledge, underlying the assumption that all views are conditionally independent. On the one hand, multiple views across tasks possibly relate to each other under practical situations. On the other hand, supervised methods might be insufficient when labeled data is scarce. To tackle these challenges, we introduce a novel framework ASM2TV for semi-supervised multi-task multi-view learning. We present a new perspective named gating control policy, a learnable task-view-interacted sharing policy that adaptively selects the most desirable candidate shared block for any view across any task, which uncovers more fine-grained task-view-interacted relatedness and improves inference efficiency. Significantly, our proposed gathering consistency adaption procedure takes full advantage of large amounts of unlabeled fragmented time-series, making it a general framework that accommodates a wide range of applications. Experiments on two diverse real-world HAR benchmark datasets collected from various subjects and sources demonstrate our framework's superiority over other state-of-the-arts.
Existing spatial object recommendation algorithms generally treat objects identically when ranking them. However, spatial objects often cover different levels of spatial granularity and thereby are heterogeneous. For example, one user may prefer to be recommended a region (say Manhattan), while another user might prefer a venue (say a restaurant). Even for the same user, preferences can change at different stages of data exploration. In this paper, we study how to support top-k spatial object recommendations at varying levels of spatial granularity, enabling spatial objects at varying granularity, such as a city, suburb, or building, as a Point of Interest (POI). To solve this problem, we propose the use of a POI tree, which captures spatial containment relationships between POIs. We design a novel multi-task learning model called MPR (short for Multi-level POI Recommendation), where each task aims to return the top-k POIs at a certain spatial granularity level. Each task consists of two subtasks: (i) attribute-based representation learning; (ii) interaction-based representation learning. The first subtask learns the feature representations for both users and POIs, capturing attributes directly from their profiles. The second subtask incorporates user-POI interactions into the model. Additionally, MPR can provide insights into why certain recommendations are being made to a user based on three types of hints: user-aspect, POI-aspect, and interaction-aspect. We empirically validate our approach using two real-life datasets, and show promising performance improvements over several state-of-the-art methods.