In the realm of 3D reconstruction from 2D images, a persisting challenge is to achieve high-precision reconstructions devoid of 3D Ground Truth data reliance. We present UNeR3D, a pioneering unsupervised methodology that sets a new standard for generating detailed 3D reconstructions solely from 2D views. Our model significantly cuts down the training costs tied to supervised approaches and introduces RGB coloration to 3D point clouds, enriching the visual experience. Employing an inverse distance weighting technique for color rendering, UNeR3D ensures seamless color transitions, enhancing visual fidelity. Our model's flexible architecture supports training with any number of views, and uniquely, it is not constrained by the number of views used during training when performing reconstructions. It can infer with an arbitrary count of views during inference, offering unparalleled versatility. Additionally, the model's continuous spatial input domain allows the generation of point clouds at any desired resolution, empowering the creation of high-resolution 3D RGB point clouds. We solidify the reconstruction process with a novel multi-view geometric loss and color loss, demonstrating that our model excels with single-view inputs and beyond, thus reshaping the paradigm of unsupervised learning in 3D vision. Our contributions signal a substantial leap forward in 3D vision, offering new horizons for content creation across diverse applications. Code is available at https://github.com/HongbinLin3589/UNeR3D.
Source-free Unsupervised Domain Adaptation (SF-UDA) aims to adapt a well-trained source model to an unlabeled target domain without access to the source data. One key challenge is the lack of source data during domain adaptation. To handle this, we propose to mine the hidden knowledge of the source model and exploit it to generate source avatar prototypes. To this end, we propose a Contrastive Prototype Generation and Adaptation (CPGA) method. CPGA consists of two stages: Prototype generation and Prototype adaptation. Extensive experiments on three UDA benchmark datasets demonstrate the superiority of CPGA. However, existing SF.UDA studies implicitly assume balanced class distributions for both the source and target domains, which hinders their real applications. To address this issue, we study a more practical SF-UDA task, termed imbalance-agnostic SF-UDA, where the class distributions of both the unseen source domain and unlabeled target domain are unknown and could be arbitrarily skewed. This task is much more challenging than vanilla SF-UDA due to the co-occurrence of covariate shifts and unidentified class distribution shifts between the source and target domains. To address this task, we extend CPGA and propose a new Target-aware Contrastive Prototype Generation and Adaptation (T-CPGA) method. Specifically, for better prototype adaptation in the imbalance-agnostic scenario, T-CPGA applies a new pseudo label generation strategy to identify unknown target class distribution and generate accurate pseudo labels, by utilizing the collective intelligence of the source model and an additional contrastive language-image pre-trained model. Meanwhile, we further devise a target label-distribution-aware classifier to adapt the model to the unknown target class distribution. We empirically show that T-CPGA significantly outperforms CPGA and other SF-UDA methods in imbalance-agnostic SF-UDA.
* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2106.15326
Needle picking is a challenging surgical task in robot-assisted surgery due to the characteristics of small slender shapes of needles, needles' variations in shapes and sizes, and demands for millimeter-level control. Prior works, heavily relying on the prior of needles (e.g., geometric models), are hard to scale to unseen needles' variations. In addition, visual tracking errors can not be minimized online using their approaches. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end deep visual learning framework for needle-picking tasks where both visual and control components can be learned jointly online. Our proposed framework integrates a state-of-the-art reinforcement learning framework, Dreamer, with behavior cloning (BC). Besides, two novel techniques, i.e., Virtual Clutch and Dynamic Spotlight Adaptation (DSA), are introduced to our end-to-end visual controller for needle-picking tasks. We conducted extensive experiments in simulation to evaluate the performance, robustness, variation adaptation, and effectiveness of individual components of our method. Our approach, trained by 8k demonstration timesteps and 140k online policy timesteps, can achieve a remarkable success rate of 80%, a new state-of-the-art with end-to-end vision-based surgical robot learning for delicate operations tasks. Furthermore, our method effectively demonstrated its superiority in generalization to unseen dynamic scenarios with needle variations and image disturbance, highlighting its robustness and versatility. Codes and videos are available at https://sites.google.com/view/dreamerbc.
* First manuscript submitted to IROS 2023 on March 1, 2023
Autonomous surgery has attracted increasing attention for revolutionizing robotic patient care, yet remains a distant and challenging goal. In this paper, we propose an image-based framework for high-precision autonomous suturing operation. We first build an algebraic geometric algorithm to achieve accurate needle pose estimation, then design the corresponding keypoint-based calibration network for joint-offset compensation, and further plan and control suture trajectory. Our solution ranked first among all competitors in the AccelNet Surgical Robotics Challenge. The source code is opened here to accelerate future autonomous surgery research.
Learning high-performance deep neural networks for dynamic modeling of high Degree-Of-Freedom (DOF) robots remains challenging due to the sampling complexity. Typical unknown system disturbance caused by unmodeled dynamics (such as internal compliance, cables) further exacerbates the problem. In this paper, a novel framework characterized by both high data efficiency and disturbance-adapting capability is proposed to address the problem of modeling gravitational dynamics using deep nets in feedforward gravity compensation control for high-DOF master manipulators with unknown disturbance. In particular, Feedforward Deep Neural Networks (FDNNs) are learned from both prior knowledge of an existing analytical model and observation of the robot system by Knowledge Distillation (KD). Through extensive experiments in high-DOF master manipulators with significant disturbance, we show that our method surpasses a standard Learning-from-Scratch (LfS) approach in terms of data efficiency and disturbance adaptation. Our initial feasibility study has demonstrated the potential of outperforming the analytical teacher model as the training data increases.
* IEEE ROBOTICS AND AUTOMATION LETTERS, VOL. 6, NO. 2, APRIL 2021
This paper studies a new, practical but challenging problem, called Class-Incremental Unsupervised Domain Adaptation (CI-UDA), where the labeled source domain contains all classes, but the classes in the unlabeled target domain increase sequentially. This problem is challenging due to two difficulties. First, source and target label sets are inconsistent at each time step, which makes it difficult to conduct accurate domain alignment. Second, previous target classes are unavailable in the current step, resulting in the forgetting of previous knowledge. To address this problem, we propose a novel Prototype-guided Continual Adaptation (ProCA) method, consisting of two solution strategies. 1) Label prototype identification: we identify target label prototypes by detecting shared classes with cumulative prediction probabilities of target samples. 2) Prototype-based alignment and replay: based on the identified label prototypes, we align both domains and enforce the model to retain previous knowledge. With these two strategies, ProCA is able to adapt the source model to a class-incremental unlabeled target domain effectively. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of ProCA in resolving CI-UDA. The source code is available at https://github.com/Hongbin98/ProCA.git
We study a practical domain adaptation task, called source-free unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA) problem, in which we cannot access source domain data due to data privacy issues but only a pre-trained source model and unlabeled target data are available. This task, however, is very difficult due to one key challenge: the lack of source data and target domain labels makes model adaptation very challenging. To address this, we propose to mine the hidden knowledge in the source model and exploit it to generate source avatar prototypes (i.e., representative features for each source class) as well as target pseudo labels for domain alignment. To this end, we propose a Contrastive Prototype Generation and Adaptation (CPGA) method. Specifically, CPGA consists of two stages: (1) prototype generation: by exploring the classification boundary information of the source model, we train a prototype generator to generate avatar prototypes via contrastive learning. (2) prototype adaptation: based on the generated source prototypes and target pseudo labels, we develop a new robust contrastive prototype adaptation strategy to align each pseudo-labeled target data to the corresponding source prototypes. Extensive experiments on three UDA benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method.
External disturbance forces caused by nonlinear springy electrical cables in the Master Tool Manipulator (MTM) of the da Vinci Research Kit (dVRK) limits the usage of the existing gravity compensation methods. Significant motion drifts at the MTM tip are often observed when the MTM is located far from its identification trajectory, preventing the usage of these methods for the entire workspace reliably. In this paper, we propose a general and systematic framework to address the problems of the gravity compensation for the MTM of the dVRK. Particularly, high order polynomial models were used to capture the highly nonlinear disturbance forces and integrated with the Multi-step Least Square Estimation (MLSE) framework. This method allows us to identify the parameters of both the gravitational and disturbance forces for each link sequentially, preventing residual error passing among the links of the MTM with uneven mass distribution. A corresponding gravity compensation controller was developed to compensate the gravitational and disturbance forces. The method was validated with extensive experiments in the majority of the manipulator's workspace, showing significant performance enhancements over existing methods. Finally, a deliverable software package in MATLAB and C++ was integrated with dVRK and published in the dVRK community for open-source research and development.
* IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters 4.4 (2019): 3892-3899
Event detection is a critical feature in data-driven systems as it assists with the identification of nominal and anomalous behavior. Event detection is increasingly relevant in robotics as robots operate with greater autonomy in increasingly unstructured environments. In this work, we present an accurate, robust, fast, and versatile measure for skill and anomaly identification. A theoretical proof establishes the link between the derivative of the log-likelihood of the HMM filtered belief state and the latest emission probabilities. The key insight is the inverse relationship in which gradient analysis is used for skill and anomaly identification. Our measure showed better performance across all metrics than related state-of-the art works. The result is broadly applicable to domains that use HMMs for event detection.
* 8 pages, 7 figures, double col, ieee conference format