Traffic forecasting is crucial for intelligent transportation systems (ITS), aiding in efficient resource allocation and effective traffic control. However, its effectiveness often relies heavily on abundant traffic data, while many cities lack sufficient data due to limited device support, posing a significant challenge for traffic forecasting. Recognizing this challenge, we have made a noteworthy observation: traffic patterns exhibit similarities across diverse cities. Building on this key insight, we propose a solution for the cross-city few-shot traffic forecasting problem called Multi-scale Traffic Pattern Bank (MTPB). Primarily, MTPB initiates its learning process by leveraging data-rich source cities, effectively acquiring comprehensive traffic knowledge through a spatial-temporal-aware pre-training process. Subsequently, the framework employs advanced clustering techniques to systematically generate a multi-scale traffic pattern bank derived from the learned knowledge. Next, the traffic data of the data-scarce target city could query the traffic pattern bank, facilitating the aggregation of meta-knowledge. This meta-knowledge, in turn, assumes a pivotal role as a robust guide in subsequent processes involving graph reconstruction and forecasting. Empirical assessments conducted on real-world traffic datasets affirm the superior performance of MTPB, surpassing existing methods across various categories and exhibiting numerous attributes conducive to the advancement of cross-city few-shot forecasting methodologies. The code is available in https://github.com/zhyliu00/MTPB.
* Under review. Text overlap with arXiv:2308.09727
The sheer volume of scientific experimental results and complex technical statements, often presented in tabular formats, presents a formidable barrier to individuals acquiring preferred information. The realms of scientific reasoning and content generation that adhere to user preferences encounter distinct challenges. In this work, we present a new task for generating fluent and logical descriptions that match user preferences over scientific tabular data, aiming to automate scientific document analysis. To facilitate research in this direction, we construct a new challenging dataset CTRLSciTab consisting of table-description pairs extracted from the scientific literature, with highlighted cells and corresponding domain-specific knowledge base. We evaluated popular pre-trained language models to establish a baseline and proposed a novel architecture outperforming competing approaches. The results showed that large models struggle to produce accurate content that aligns with user preferences. As the first of its kind, our work should motivate further research in scientific domains.
Traffic prediction is a crucial topic because of its broad scope of applications in the transportation domain. Recently, various studies have achieved promising results. However, most studies assume the prediction locations have complete or at least partial historical records and cannot be extended to non-historical recorded locations. In real-life scenarios, the deployment of sensors could be limited due to budget limitations and installation availability, which makes most current models not applicable. Though few pieces of literature tried to impute traffic states at the missing locations, these methods need the data simultaneously observed at the locations with sensors, making them not applicable to prediction tasks. Another drawback is the lack of measurement of uncertainty in prediction, making prior works unsuitable for risk-sensitive tasks or involving decision-making. To fill the gap, inspired by the previous inductive graph neural network, this work proposed an uncertainty-aware framework with the ability to 1) extend prediction to missing locations with no historical records and significantly extend spatial coverage of prediction locations while reducing deployment of sensors and 2) generate probabilistic prediction with uncertainty quantification to help the management of risk and decision making in the down-stream tasks. Through extensive experiments on real-life datasets, the result shows our method achieved promising results on prediction tasks, and the uncertainty quantification gives consistent results which highly correlated with the locations with and without historical data. We also show that our model could help support sensor deployment tasks in the transportation field to achieve higher accuracy with a limited sensor deployment budget.
* 11 pages, 3 figures, Accepted as a short paper of IEEE International
Conference on Data Mining (ICDM) 2023
Traffic forecasting is a critical service in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Utilizing deep models to tackle this task relies heavily on data from traffic sensors or vehicle devices, while some cities might lack device support and thus have few available data. So, it is necessary to learn from data-rich cities and transfer the knowledge to data-scarce cities in order to improve the performance of traffic forecasting. To address this problem, we propose a cross-city few-shot traffic forecasting framework via Traffic Pattern Bank (TPB) due to that the traffic patterns are similar across cities. TPB utilizes a pre-trained traffic patch encoder to project raw traffic data from data-rich cities into high-dimensional space, from which a traffic pattern bank is generated through clustering. Then, the traffic data of the data-scarce city could query the traffic pattern bank and explicit relations between them are constructed. The metaknowledge is aggregated based on these relations and an adjacency matrix is constructed to guide a downstream spatial-temporal model in forecasting future traffic. The frequently used meta-training framework Reptile is adapted to find a better initial parameter for the learnable modules. Experiments on real-world traffic datasets show that TPB outperforms existing methods and demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach in cross-city few-shot traffic forecasting.
This paper proposes the fine-grained traffic prediction task (e.g. interval between data points is 1 minute), which is essential to traffic-related downstream applications. Under this setting, traffic flow is highly influenced by traffic signals and the correlation between traffic nodes is dynamic. As a result, the traffic data is non-smooth between nodes, and hard to utilize previous methods which focus on smooth traffic data. To address this problem, we propose Fine-grained Deep Traffic Inference, termed as FDTI. Specifically, we construct a fine-grained traffic graph based on traffic signals to model the inter-road relations. Then, a physically-interpretable dynamic mobility convolution module is proposed to capture vehicle moving dynamics controlled by the traffic signals. Furthermore, traffic flow conservation is introduced to accurately infer future volume. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our method achieves state-of-the-art performance and learned traffic dynamics with good properties. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to conduct the city-level fine-grained traffic prediction.
Pre-trained language models (PLM) have achieved remarkable advancement in table-to-text generation tasks. However, the lack of labeled domain-specific knowledge and the topology gap between tabular data and text make it difficult for PLMs to yield faithful text. Low-resource generation likewise faces unique challenges in this domain. Inspired by how humans descript tabular data with prior knowledge, we suggest a new framework: PromptMize, which targets table-to-text generation under few-shot settings. The design of our framework consists of two aspects: a prompt planner and a knowledge adapter. The prompt planner aims to generate a prompt signal that provides instance guidance for PLMs to bridge the topology gap between tabular data and text. Moreover, the knowledge adapter memorizes domain-specific knowledge from the unlabelled corpus to supply essential information during generation. Extensive experiments and analyses are investigated on three open domain few-shot NLG datasets: human, song, and book. Compared with previous state-of-the-art approaches, our model achieves remarkable performance in generating quality as judged by human and automatic evaluations.
* not good enough we changed the contend and rename the article with a
Pre-trained language models (PLMs) have made remarkable progress in table-to-text generation tasks. However, the topological gap between tabular data and text and the lack of domain-specific knowledge make it difficult for PLMs to produce faithful text, especially in real-world applications with limited resources. In this paper, we mitigate the above challenges by introducing a novel augmentation method: Prompt-based Adapter (PA), which targets table-to-text generation under few-shot conditions. The core insight design of the PA is to inject prompt templates for augmenting domain-specific knowledge and table-related representations into the model for bridging the structural gap between tabular data and descriptions through adapters. Such prompt-based knowledge augmentation method brings at least two benefits: (1) enables us to fully use the large amounts of unlabelled domain-specific knowledge, which can alleviate the PLMs' inherent shortcomings of lacking domain knowledge; (2) allows us to design different types of tasks supporting the generative challenge. Extensive experiments and analyses are conducted on three open-domain few-shot NLG datasets: Humans, Books, and Songs. Compared to previous state-of-the-art approaches, our model achieves superior performance in terms of both fluency and accuracy as judged by human and automatic evaluations.
* arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:2302.04415