Integrated Sensing and Communication (ISAC) is a promising technology in 6G systems. The existing 3D Geometry-Based Stochastic Model (GBSM), as standardized for 5G systems, addresses solely communication channels and lacks consideration of the integration with sensing channel. Therefore, this letter extends 3D GBSM to support ISAC research, with a particular focus on capturing the sharing feature of both channels, including shared scatterers, clusters, paths, and similar propagation param-eters, which have been experimentally verified in the literature. The proposed approach can be summarized as follows: Firstly, an ISAC channel model is proposed, where shared and non-shared components are superimposed for both communication and sensing. Secondly, sensing channel is characterized as a cascade of TX-target, radar cross section, and target-RX, with the introduction of a novel parameter S for shared target extraction. Finally, an ISAC channel implementation framework is proposed, allowing flexible configuration of sharing feature and the joint generation of communication and sensing channels. The proposed ISAC channel model can be compatible with the 3GPP standards and offers promising support for ISAC technology evaluation.
Technology research and standardization work of sixth generation (6G) has been carried out worldwide. Channel research is the prerequisite of 6G technology evaluation and optimization. This paper presents a survey and tutorial on channel measurement, modeling, and simulation for 6G. We first highlight the challenges of channel for 6G systems, including higher frequency band, extremely large antenna array, new technology combinations, and diverse application scenarios. A review of channel measurement and modeling for four possible 6G enabling technologies is then presented, i.e., terahertz communication, massive multiple-input multiple-output communication, joint communication and sensing, and reconfigurable intelligent surface. Finally, we introduce a 6G channel simulation platform and provide examples of its implementation. The goal of this paper is to help both professionals and non-professionals know the progress of 6G channel research, understand the 6G channel model, and use it for 6G simulation.
A novel multistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) integrated sensing and communication (ISAC) system in cellular networks is proposed. It can make use of widespread base stations (BSs) to perform cooperative sensing in wide area. This system is important since the deployment of sensing function can be achieved based on the existing mobile communication networks at a low cost. In this system, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals transmitted from the central BS are received and processed by each of the neighboring BSs to estimate sensing object parameters. A joint data processing method is then introduced to derive the closed-form solution of objects position and velocity. Numerical simulation shows that the proposed multistatic system can improve the position and velocity estimation accuracy compared with monostatic and bistatic system, demonstrating the effectiveness and promise of implementing ISAC in the upcoming fifth generation advanced (5G-A) and sixth generation (6G) mobile networks.
Visual perception is an effective way to obtain the spatial characteristics of wireless channels and to reduce the overhead for communications system. A critical problem for the visual assistance is that the communications system needs to match the radio signal with the visual information of the corresponding user, i.e., to identify the visual user that corresponds to the target radio signal from all the environmental objects. In this paper, we propose a user matching method for environment with a variable number of objects. Specifically, we apply 3D detection to extract all the environmental objects from the images taken by multiple cameras. Then, we design a deep neural network (DNN) to estimate the location distribution of users by the images and beam pairs at multiple moments, and thereby identify the users from all the extracted environmental objects. Moreover, we present a resource allocation method based on the taken images to reduce the time and spectrum overhead compared to traditional resource allocation methods. Simulation results show that the proposed user matching method outperforms the existing methods, and the proposed resource allocation method can achieve $92\%$ transmission rate of the traditional resource allocation method but with the time and spectrum overhead significantly reduced.
We develop a novel framework to assess the risk of misperception in a traffic sign classification task in the presence of exogenous noise. We consider the problem in an autonomous driving setting, where visual input quality gradually improves due to improved resolution, and less noise since the distance to traffic signs decreases. Using the estimated perception statistics obtained using the standard classification algorithms, we aim to quantify the risk of misperception to mitigate the effects of imperfect visual observation. By exploring perception outputs, their expected high-level actions, and potential costs, we show the closed-form representation of the conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) of misperception. Several case studies support the effectiveness of our proposed methodology.
Reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) is seen as a promising technology for next-generation wireless communications, and channel modeling is the key to RIS research. However, traditional model frameworks only support Tx-Rx channel modeling. In this letter, a RIS cascade channel modeling method based on a geometry-based stochastic model (GBSM) is proposed, which follows a 3GPP standardized modeling framework. The main improvements come from two aspects. One is to consider the non-ideal phase modulation of the RIS element, so as to accurately include its phase modulation characteristic. The other is the Tx-RIS-Rx cascade channel generation method based on the RIS radiation pattern. Thus, the conventional Tx-Rx channel model is easily expanded to RIS propagation environments. The differences between the proposed cascade channel model and the channel model with ideal phase modulation are investigated. The simulation results show that the proposed model can better reflect the dependence of RIS on angle and polarization.
In this letter, we propose a novel mmWave beam selection method based on the environment semantics that are extracted from camera images taken at the user side. Specifically, we first define the environment semantics as the spatial distribution of the scatterers that affect the wireless propagation channels and utilize the keypoint detection technique to extract them from the input images. Then, we design a deep neural network with environment semantics as the input that can output the optimal beam pairs at UE and BS. Compared with the existing beam selection approaches that directly use images as the input, the proposed semantic-based method can explicitly obtain the environmental features that account for the propagation of wireless signals, and thus reduce the burden of storage and computation. Simulation results show that the proposed method can precisely estimate the location of the scatterers and outperform the existing image or LIDAR based works.
In this paper, we propose an environment semantics aided wireless communication framework to reduce the transmission latency and improve the transmission reliability, where semantic information is extracted from environment image data, selectively encoded based on its task-relevance, and then fused to make decisions for channel related tasks. As a case study, we develop an environment semantics aided network architecture for mmWave communication systems, which is composed of a semantic feature extraction network, a feature selection algorithm, a task-oriented encoder, and a decision network. With images taken from street cameras and user's identification information as the inputs, the environment semantics aided network architecture is trained to predict the optimal beam index and the blockage state for the base station. It is seen that without pilot training or the costly beam scans, the environment semantics aided network architecture can realize extremely efficient beam prediction and timely blockage prediction, thus meeting requirements for ultra-reliable and low-latency communications (URLLCs). Simulation results demonstrate that compared with existing works, the proposed environment semantics aided network architecture can reduce system overheads such as storage space and computational cost while achieving satisfactory prediction accuracy and protecting user privacy.
Semantic communication is regarded as the breakthrough beyond the Shannon paradigm, which transmits only semantic information to significantly improve communication efficiency. This article introduces a framework for generalized semantic communication system, which exploits the semantic information in both the multimodal source and the wireless channel environment. Subsequently, the developed deep learning enabled end-to-end semantic communication and environment semantics aided wireless communication techniques are demonstrated through two examples. The article concludes with several research challenges to boost the development of such a generalized semantic communication system.
Holographic Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output (MIMO) is envisioned as a promising technology to realize unprecedented spectral efficiency by integrating a large number of antennas into a compact space. Most research on holographic MIMO is based on isotropic scattering environments, and the antenna gain is assumed to be unlimited by deployment space. However, the channel might not satisfy isotropic scattering because of generalized angle distributions, and the antenna gain is limited by the array aperture in reality. In this letter, we aim to analyze the holographic MIMO channel capacity under practical angle distribution and array aperture constraints. First, we calculate the spectral density for generalized angle distributions by introducing a wavenumber domain-based method. And then, the capacity under generalized angle distributions is analyzed and two different aperture schemes are considered. Finally, numerical results show that the capacity is obviously affected by angle distribution at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) but hardly affected at low SNR, and the capacity will not increase infinitely with antenna density due to the array aperture constraint.