The optimality of Bayesian filtering relies on the completeness of prior models, while deep learning holds a distinct advantage in learning models from offline data. Nevertheless, the current fusion of these two methodologies remains largely ad hoc, lacking a theoretical foundation. This paper presents a novel solution, namely a multi-level gated Bayesian recurrent neural network specifically designed to state estimation under model mismatches. Firstly, we transform the non-Markov state-space model into an equivalent first-order Markov model with memory. It is a generalized transformation that overcomes the limitations of the first-order Markov property and enables recursive filtering. Secondly, by deriving a data-assisted joint state-memory-mismatch Bayesian filtering, we design a Bayesian multi-level gated framework that includes a memory update gate for capturing the temporal regularities in state evolution, a state prediction gate with the evolution mismatch compensation, and a state update gate with the observation mismatch compensation. The Gaussian approximation implementation of the filtering process within the gated framework is derived, taking into account the computational efficiency. Finally, the corresponding internal neural network structures and end-to-end training methods are designed. The Bayesian filtering theory enhances the interpretability of the proposed gated network, enabling the effective integration of offline data and prior models within functionally explicit gated units. In comprehensive experiments, including simulations and real-world datasets, the proposed gated network demonstrates superior estimation performance compared to benchmark filters and state-of-the-art deep learning filtering methods.
Backprojection networks have achieved promising super-resolution performance for nature images but not well be explored in the remote sensing image super-resolution (RSISR) field due to the high computation costs. In this paper, we propose a Multi-granularity Backprojection Transformer termed MBT for RSISR. MBT incorporates the backprojection learning strategy into a Transformer framework. It consists of Scale-aware Backprojection-based Transformer Layers (SPTLs) for scale-aware low-resolution feature learning and Context-aware Backprojection-based Transformer Blocks (CPTBs) for hierarchical feature learning. A backprojection-based reconstruction module (PRM) is also introduced to enhance the hierarchical features for image reconstruction. MBT stands out by efficiently learning low-resolution features without excessive modules for high-resolution processing, resulting in lower computational resources. Experiment results on UCMerced and AID datasets demonstrate that MBT obtains state-of-the-art results compared to other leading methods.
Expert feedback lays the foundation of rigorous research. However, the rapid growth of scholarly production and intricate knowledge specialization challenge the conventional scientific feedback mechanisms. High-quality peer reviews are increasingly difficult to obtain. Researchers who are more junior or from under-resourced settings have especially hard times getting timely feedback. With the breakthrough of large language models (LLM) such as GPT-4, there is growing interest in using LLMs to generate scientific feedback on research manuscripts. However, the utility of LLM-generated feedback has not been systematically studied. To address this gap, we created an automated pipeline using GPT-4 to provide comments on the full PDFs of scientific papers. We evaluated the quality of GPT-4's feedback through two large-scale studies. We first quantitatively compared GPT-4's generated feedback with human peer reviewer feedback in 15 Nature family journals (3,096 papers in total) and the ICLR machine learning conference (1,709 papers). The overlap in the points raised by GPT-4 and by human reviewers (average overlap 30.85% for Nature journals, 39.23% for ICLR) is comparable to the overlap between two human reviewers (average overlap 28.58% for Nature journals, 35.25% for ICLR). The overlap between GPT-4 and human reviewers is larger for the weaker papers. We then conducted a prospective user study with 308 researchers from 110 US institutions in the field of AI and computational biology to understand how researchers perceive feedback generated by our GPT-4 system on their own papers. Overall, more than half (57.4%) of the users found GPT-4 generated feedback helpful/very helpful and 82.4% found it more beneficial than feedback from at least some human reviewers. While our findings show that LLM-generated feedback can help researchers, we also identify several limitations.
This paper presents CORE, a conceptually simple, effective and communication-efficient model for multi-agent cooperative perception. It addresses the task from a novel perspective of cooperative reconstruction, based on two key insights: 1) cooperating agents together provide a more holistic observation of the environment, and 2) the holistic observation can serve as valuable supervision to explicitly guide the model learning how to reconstruct the ideal observation based on collaboration. CORE instantiates the idea with three major components: a compressor for each agent to create more compact feature representation for efficient broadcasting, a lightweight attentive collaboration component for cross-agent message aggregation, and a reconstruction module to reconstruct the observation based on aggregated feature representations. This learning-to-reconstruct idea is task-agnostic, and offers clear and reasonable supervision to inspire more effective collaboration, eventually promoting perception tasks. We validate CORE on OPV2V, a large-scale multi-agent percetion dataset, in two tasks, i.e., 3D object detection and semantic segmentation. Results demonstrate that the model achieves state-of-the-art performance on both tasks, and is more communication-efficient.
Remote sensing image super-resolution (RSISR) plays a vital role in enhancing spatial detials and improving the quality of satellite imagery. Recently, Transformer-based models have shown competitive performance in RSISR. To mitigate the quadratic computational complexity resulting from global self-attention, various methods constrain attention to a local window, enhancing its efficiency. Consequently, the receptive fields in a single attention layer are inadequate, leading to insufficient context modeling. Furthermore, while most transform-based approaches reuse shallow features through skip connections, relying solely on these connections treats shallow and deep features equally, impeding the model's ability to characterize them. To address these issues, we propose a novel transformer architecture called Cross-Spatial Pixel Integration and Cross-Stage Feature Fusion Based Transformer Network (SPIFFNet) for RSISR. Our proposed model effectively enhances global cognition and understanding of the entire image, facilitating efficient integration of features cross-stages. The model incorporates cross-spatial pixel integration attention (CSPIA) to introduce contextual information into a local window, while cross-stage feature fusion attention (CSFFA) adaptively fuses features from the previous stage to improve feature expression in line with the requirements of the current stage. We conducted comprehensive experiments on multiple benchmark datasets, demonstrating the superior performance of our proposed SPIFFNet in terms of both quantitative metrics and visual quality when compared to state-of-the-art methods.
Gaze object prediction (GOP) is a newly proposed task that aims to discover the objects being stared at by humans. It is of great application significance but still lacks a unified solution framework. An intuitive solution is to incorporate an object detection branch into an existing gaze prediction method. However, previous gaze prediction methods usually use two different networks to extract features from scene image and head image, which would lead to heavy network architecture and prevent each branch from joint optimization. In this paper, we build a novel framework named GaTector to tackle the gaze object prediction problem in a unified way. Particularly, a specific-general-specific (SGS) feature extractor is firstly proposed to utilize a shared backbone to extract general features for both scene and head images. To better consider the specificity of inputs and tasks, SGS introduces two input-specific blocks before the shared backbone and three task-specific blocks after the shared backbone. Specifically, a novel defocus layer is designed to generate object-specific features for object detection task without losing information or requiring extra computations. Moreover, the energy aggregation loss is introduced to guide the gaze heatmap to concentrate on the stared box. In the end, we propose a novel mDAP metric that can reveal the difference between boxes even when they share no overlapping area. Extensive experiments on the GOO dataset verify the superiority of our method in all three tracks, i.e. object detection, gaze estimation, and gaze object prediction.
Portrait photo retouching is a photo retouching task that emphasizes human-region priority and group-level consistency. The lookup table-based method achieves promising retouching performance by learning image-adaptive weights to combine 3-dimensional lookup tables (3D LUTs) and conducting pixel-to-pixel color transformation. However, this paradigm ignores the local context cues and applies the same transformation to portrait pixels and background pixels when they exhibit the same raw RGB values. In contrast, an expert usually conducts different operations to adjust the color temperatures and tones of portrait regions and background regions. This inspires us to model local context cues to improve the retouching quality explicitly. Firstly, we consider an image patch and predict pixel-adaptive lookup table weights to precisely retouch the center pixel. Secondly, as neighboring pixels exhibit different affinities to the center pixel, we estimate a local attention mask to modulate the influence of neighboring pixels. Thirdly, the quality of the local attention mask can be further improved by applying supervision, which is based on the affinity map calculated by the groundtruth portrait mask. As for group-level consistency, we propose to directly constrain the variance of mean color components in the Lab space. Extensive experiments on PPR10K dataset verify the effectiveness of our method, e.g. on high-resolution photos, the PSNR metric receives over 0.5 gains while the group-level consistency metric obtains at least 2.1 decreases.