Data is the cornerstone of deep learning. This paper reveals that the recently developed Diffusion Model is a scalable data engine for object detection. Existing methods for scaling up detection-oriented data often require manual collection or generative models to obtain target images, followed by data augmentation and labeling to produce training pairs, which are costly, complex, or lacking diversity. To address these issues, we presentDiffusionEngine (DE), a data scaling-up engine that provides high-quality detection-oriented training pairs in a single stage. DE consists of a pre-trained diffusion model and an effective Detection-Adapter, contributing to generating scalable, diverse and generalizable detection data in a plug-and-play manner. Detection-Adapter is learned to align the implicit semantic and location knowledge in off-the-shelf diffusion models with detection-aware signals to make better bounding-box predictions. Additionally, we contribute two datasets, i.e., COCO-DE and VOC-DE, to scale up existing detection benchmarks for facilitating follow-up research. Extensive experiments demonstrate that data scaling-up via DE can achieve significant improvements in diverse scenarios, such as various detection algorithms, self-supervised pre-training, data-sparse, label-scarce, cross-domain, and semi-supervised learning. For example, when using DE with a DINO-based adapter to scale up data, mAP is improved by 3.1% on COCO, 7.6% on VOC, and 11.5% on Clipart.
Existing methods based on meta-learning predict novel-class labels for (target domain) testing tasks via meta knowledge learned from (source domain) training tasks of base classes. However, most existing works may fail to generalize to novel classes due to the probably large domain discrepancy across domains. To address this issue, we propose a novel adversarial feature augmentation (AFA) method to bridge the domain gap in few-shot learning. The feature augmentation is designed to simulate distribution variations by maximizing the domain discrepancy. During adversarial training, the domain discriminator is learned by distinguishing the augmented features (unseen domain) from the original ones (seen domain), while the domain discrepancy is minimized to obtain the optimal feature encoder. The proposed method is a plug-and-play module that can be easily integrated into existing few-shot learning methods based on meta-learning. Extensive experiments on nine datasets demonstrate the superiority of our method for cross-domain few-shot classification compared with the state of the art. Code is available at https://github.com/youthhoo/AFA_For_Few_shot_learning
Despite the great progress in video understanding made by deep convolutional neural networks, feature representation learned by existing methods may be biased to static visual cues. To address this issue, we propose a novel method to suppress static visual cues (SSVC) based on probabilistic analysis for self-supervised video representation learning. In our method, video frames are first encoded to obtain latent variables under standard normal distribution via normalizing flows. By modelling static factors in a video as a random variable, the conditional distribution of each latent variable becomes shifted and scaled normal. Then, the less-varying latent variables along time are selected as static cues and suppressed to generate motion-preserved videos. Finally, positive pairs are constructed by motion-preserved videos for contrastive learning to alleviate the problem of representation bias to static cues. The less-biased video representation can be better generalized to various downstream tasks. Extensive experiments on publicly available benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the state of the art when only single RGB modality is used for pre-training.
Self-supervised learning has shown great potentials in improving the video representation ability of deep neural networks by constructing surrogate supervision signals from the unlabeled data. However, some of the current methods tend to suffer from a background cheating problem, i.e., the prediction is highly dependent on the video background instead of the motion, making the model vulnerable to background changes. To alleviate the problem, we propose to remove the background impact by adding the background. That is, given a video, we randomly select a static frame and add it to every other frames to construct a distracting video sample. Then we force the model to pull the feature of the distracting video and the feature of the original video closer, so that the model is explicitly restricted to resist the background influence, focusing more on the motion changes. In addition, in order to prevent the static frame from disturbing the motion area too much, we restrict the feature being consistent with the temporally flipped feature of the reversed video, forcing the model to concentrate more on the motion. We term our method as Temporal-sensitive Background Erasing (TBE). Experiments on UCF101 and HMDB51 show that TBE brings about 6.4% and 4.8% improvements over the state-of-the-art method on the HMDB51 and UCF101 datasets respectively. And it is worth noting that the implementation of our method is so simple and neat and can be added as an additional regularization term to most of the SOTA methods without much efforts.
Temporal cues in videos provide important information for recognizing actions accurately. However, temporal-discriminative features can hardly be extracted without using an annotated large-scale video action dataset for training. This paper proposes a novel Video-based Temporal-Discriminative Learning (VTDL) framework in self-supervised manner. Without labelled data for network pretraining, temporal triplet is generated for each anchor video by using segment of the same or different time interval so as to enhance the capacity for temporal feature representation. Measuring temporal information by time derivative, Temporal Consistent Augmentation (TCA) is designed to ensure that the time derivative (in any order) of the augmented positive is invariant except for a scaling constant. Finally, temporal-discriminative features are learnt by minimizing the distance between each anchor and its augmented positive, while the distance between each anchor and its augmented negative as well as other videos saved in the memory bank is maximized to enrich the representation diversity. In the downstream action recognition task, the proposed method significantly outperforms existing related works. Surprisingly, the proposed self-supervised approach is better than fully-supervised methods on UCF101 and HMDB51 when a small-scale video dataset (with only thousands of videos) is used for pre-training. The code has been made publicly available on https://github.com/FingerRec/Self-Supervised-Temporal-Discriminative-Representation-Learning-for-Video-Action-Recognition.
Self-supervised learning has shown great potentials in improving the deep learning model in an unsupervised manner by constructing surrogate supervision signals directly from the unlabeled data. Different from existing works, we present a novel way to obtain the surrogate supervision signal based on high-level feature maps under consistency regularization. In this paper, we propose a Spatio-Temporal Consistency Regularization between different output features generated from a siamese network including a clean path fed with original video and a noise path fed with the corresponding augmented video. Based on the Spatio-Temporal characteristics of video, we develop two video-based data augmentation methods, i.e., Spatio-Temporal Transformation and Intra-Video Mixup. Consistency of the former one is proposed to model transformation consistency of features, while the latter one aims at retaining spatial invariance to extract action-related features. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our method achieves substantial improvements compared with state-of-the-art self-supervised learning methods for action recognition. When using our method as an additional regularization term and combine with current surrogate supervision signals, we achieve 22% relative improvement over the previous state-of-the-art on HMDB51 and 7% on UCF101.