Data is the cornerstone of deep learning. This paper reveals that the recently developed Diffusion Model is a scalable data engine for object detection. Existing methods for scaling up detection-oriented data often require manual collection or generative models to obtain target images, followed by data augmentation and labeling to produce training pairs, which are costly, complex, or lacking diversity. To address these issues, we presentDiffusionEngine (DE), a data scaling-up engine that provides high-quality detection-oriented training pairs in a single stage. DE consists of a pre-trained diffusion model and an effective Detection-Adapter, contributing to generating scalable, diverse and generalizable detection data in a plug-and-play manner. Detection-Adapter is learned to align the implicit semantic and location knowledge in off-the-shelf diffusion models with detection-aware signals to make better bounding-box predictions. Additionally, we contribute two datasets, i.e., COCO-DE and VOC-DE, to scale up existing detection benchmarks for facilitating follow-up research. Extensive experiments demonstrate that data scaling-up via DE can achieve significant improvements in diverse scenarios, such as various detection algorithms, self-supervised pre-training, data-sparse, label-scarce, cross-domain, and semi-supervised learning. For example, when using DE with a DINO-based adapter to scale up data, mAP is improved by 3.1% on COCO, 7.6% on VOC, and 11.5% on Clipart.
Anomaly detection (AD), aiming to find samples that deviate from the training distribution, is essential in safety-critical applications. Though recent self-supervised learning based attempts achieve promising results by creating virtual outliers, their training objectives are less faithful to AD which requires a concentrated inlier distribution as well as a dispersive outlier distribution. In this paper, we propose Unilaterally Aggregated Contrastive Learning with Hierarchical Augmentation (UniCon-HA), taking into account both the requirements above. Specifically, we explicitly encourage the concentration of inliers and the dispersion of virtual outliers via supervised and unsupervised contrastive losses, respectively. Considering that standard contrastive data augmentation for generating positive views may induce outliers, we additionally introduce a soft mechanism to re-weight each augmented inlier according to its deviation from the inlier distribution, to ensure a purified concentration. Moreover, to prompt a higher concentration, inspired by curriculum learning, we adopt an easy-to-hard hierarchical augmentation strategy and perform contrastive aggregation at different depths of the network based on the strengths of data augmentation. Our method is evaluated under three AD settings including unlabeled one-class, unlabeled multi-class, and labeled multi-class, demonstrating its consistent superiority over other competitors.
Video frame interpolation has been actively studied with the development of convolutional neural networks. However, due to the intrinsic limitations of kernel weight sharing in convolution, the interpolated frame generated by it may lose details. In contrast, the attention mechanism in Transformer can better distinguish the contribution of each pixel, and it can also capture long-range pixel dependencies, which provides great potential for video interpolation. Nevertheless, the original Transformer is commonly used for 2D images; how to develop a Transformer-based framework with consideration of temporal self-attention for video frame interpolation remains an open issue. In this paper, we propose Video Frame Interpolation Flow Transformer to incorporate motion dynamics from optical flows into the self-attention mechanism. Specifically, we design a Flow Transformer Block that calculates the temporal self-attention in a matched local area with the guidance of flow, making our framework suitable for interpolating frames with large motion while maintaining reasonably low complexity. In addition, we construct a multi-scale architecture to account for multi-scale motion, further improving the overall performance. Extensive experiments on three benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed method can generate interpolated frames with better visual quality than state-of-the-art methods.
The paradigm of large-scale pre-training followed by downstream fine-tuning has been widely employed in various object detection algorithms. In this paper, we reveal discrepancies in data, model, and task between the pre-training and fine-tuning procedure in existing practices, which implicitly limit the detector's performance, generalization ability, and convergence speed. To this end, we propose AlignDet, a unified pre-training framework that can be adapted to various existing detectors to alleviate the discrepancies. AlignDet decouples the pre-training process into two stages, i.e., image-domain and box-domain pre-training. The image-domain pre-training optimizes the detection backbone to capture holistic visual abstraction, and box-domain pre-training learns instance-level semantics and task-aware concepts to initialize the parts out of the backbone. By incorporating the self-supervised pre-trained backbones, we can pre-train all modules for various detectors in an unsupervised paradigm. As depicted in Figure 1, extensive experiments demonstrate that AlignDet can achieve significant improvements across diverse protocols, such as detection algorithm, model backbone, data setting, and training schedule. For example, AlignDet improves FCOS by 5.3 mAP, RetinaNet by 2.1 mAP, Faster R-CNN by 3.3 mAP, and DETR by 2.3 mAP under fewer epochs.
Recently, open-vocabulary learning has emerged to accomplish segmentation for arbitrary categories of text-based descriptions, which popularizes the segmentation system to more general-purpose application scenarios. However, existing methods devote to designing specialized architectures or parameters for specific segmentation tasks. These customized design paradigms lead to fragmentation between various segmentation tasks, thus hindering the uniformity of segmentation models. Hence in this paper, we propose FreeSeg, a generic framework to accomplish Unified, Universal and Open-Vocabulary Image Segmentation. FreeSeg optimizes an all-in-one network via one-shot training and employs the same architecture and parameters to handle diverse segmentation tasks seamlessly in the inference procedure. Additionally, adaptive prompt learning facilitates the unified model to capture task-aware and category-sensitive concepts, improving model robustness in multi-task and varied scenarios. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that FreeSeg establishes new state-of-the-art results in performance and generalization on three segmentation tasks, which outperforms the best task-specific architectures by a large margin: 5.5% mIoU on semantic segmentation, 17.6% mAP on instance segmentation, 20.1% PQ on panoptic segmentation for the unseen class on COCO.
Vision transformers have recently shown strong global context modeling capabilities in camouflaged object detection. However, they suffer from two major limitations: less effective locality modeling and insufficient feature aggregation in decoders, which are not conducive to camouflaged object detection that explores subtle cues from indistinguishable backgrounds. To address these issues, in this paper, we propose a novel transformer-based Feature Shrinkage Pyramid Network (FSPNet), which aims to hierarchically decode locality-enhanced neighboring transformer features through progressive shrinking for camouflaged object detection. Specifically, we propose a nonlocal token enhancement module (NL-TEM) that employs the non-local mechanism to interact neighboring tokens and explore graph-based high-order relations within tokens to enhance local representations of transformers. Moreover, we design a feature shrinkage decoder (FSD) with adjacent interaction modules (AIM), which progressively aggregates adjacent transformer features through a layer-bylayer shrinkage pyramid to accumulate imperceptible but effective cues as much as possible for object information decoding. Extensive quantitative and qualitative experiments demonstrate that the proposed model significantly outperforms the existing 24 competitors on three challenging COD benchmark datasets under six widely-used evaluation metrics. Our code is publicly available at https://github.com/ZhouHuang23/FSPNet.
Domain adaptation tackles the challenge of generalizing knowledge acquired from a source domain to a target domain with different data distributions. Traditional domain adaptation methods presume that the classes in the source and target domains are identical, which is not always the case in real-world scenarios. Open-set domain adaptation (OSDA) addresses this limitation by allowing previously unseen classes in the target domain. Open-set domain adaptation aims to not only recognize target samples belonging to common classes shared by source and target domains but also perceive unknown class samples. We propose a novel framework based on self-paced learning to distinguish common and unknown class samples precisely, referred to as SPLOS (self-paced learning for open-set). To utilize unlabeled target samples for self-paced learning, we generate pseudo labels and design a cross-domain mixup method tailored for OSDA scenarios. This strategy minimizes the noise from pseudo labels and ensures our model progressively learns common class features of the target domain, beginning with simpler examples and advancing to more complex ones. Furthermore, unlike existing OSDA methods that require manual hyperparameter $threshold$ tuning to separate common and unknown classes, our approach self-tunes a suitable threshold, eliminating the need for empirical tuning during testing. Comprehensive experiments illustrate that our method consistently achieves superior performance on different benchmarks compared with various state-of-the-art methods.
Open-set domain adaptation (OSDA) aims to not only recognize target samples belonging to common classes shared by source and target domains but also perceive unknown class samples. Existing OSDA methods suffer from two obstacles. Firstly, a tedious process of manually tuning a hyperparameter $threshold$ is required for most OSDA approaches to separate common and unknown classes. It is difficult to determine a proper threshold when the target domain data is unlabeled. Secondly, most OSDA methods rely only on confidence values to distinguish between common and unknown classes, using limited source and target samples to train models, leading to unsatisfactory performance when the target domain has mostly unknown classes. Our studies demonstrate that exploiting multiple criteria within a more continuous latent space is beneficial for the model's performance. In this paper, we design a novel threshold self-tuning and cross-domain mixup (TSCM) method to overcome the two drawbacks. TSCM can automatically tune a proper threshold utilizing unlabeled target samples rather than manually setting an empirical hyperparameter. Our method considers multiple criteria instead of only the confidence and uses the threshold generated by itself to separate common and unknown classes in the target domain. Moreover, we introduce a cross-domain mixup method designed for OSDA scenarios to learn domain-invariant features in a more continuous latent space. Comprehensive experiments illustrate that our method consistently achieves superior performance on different benchmarks compared with various state-of-the-art methods.
Co-Salient Object Detection (CoSOD) aims at detecting common salient objects within a group of relevant source images. Most of the latest works employ the attention mechanism for finding common objects. To achieve accurate CoSOD results with high-quality maps and high efficiency, we propose a novel Memory-aided Contrastive Consensus Learning (MCCL) framework, which is capable of effectively detecting co-salient objects in real time (~150 fps). To learn better group consensus, we propose the Group Consensus Aggregation Module (GCAM) to abstract the common features of each image group; meanwhile, to make the consensus representation more discriminative, we introduce the Memory-based Contrastive Module (MCM), which saves and updates the consensus of images from different groups in a queue of memories. Finally, to improve the quality and integrity of the predicted maps, we develop an Adversarial Integrity Learning (AIL) strategy to make the segmented regions more likely composed of complete objects with less surrounding noise. Extensive experiments on all the latest CoSOD benchmarks demonstrate that our lite MCCL outperforms 13 cutting-edge models, achieving the new state of the art (~5.9% and ~6.2% improvement in S-measure on CoSOD3k and CoSal2015, respectively). Our source codes, saliency maps, and online demos are publicly available at https://github.com/ZhengPeng7/MCCL.