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"Topic Modeling": models, code, and papers

Nonparametric Relational Topic Models through Dependent Gamma Processes

Mar 30, 2015
Junyu Xuan, Jie Lu, Guangquan Zhang, Richard Yi Da Xu, Xiangfeng Luo

Traditional Relational Topic Models provide a way to discover the hidden topics from a document network. Many theoretical and practical tasks, such as dimensional reduction, document clustering, link prediction, benefit from this revealed knowledge. However, existing relational topic models are based on an assumption that the number of hidden topics is known in advance, and this is impractical in many real-world applications. Therefore, in order to relax this assumption, we propose a nonparametric relational topic model in this paper. Instead of using fixed-dimensional probability distributions in its generative model, we use stochastic processes. Specifically, a gamma process is assigned to each document, which represents the topic interest of this document. Although this method provides an elegant solution, it brings additional challenges when mathematically modeling the inherent network structure of typical document network, i.e., two spatially closer documents tend to have more similar topics. Furthermore, we require that the topics are shared by all the documents. In order to resolve these challenges, we use a subsampling strategy to assign each document a different gamma process from the global gamma process, and the subsampling probabilities of documents are assigned with a Markov Random Field constraint that inherits the document network structure. Through the designed posterior inference algorithm, we can discover the hidden topics and its number simultaneously. Experimental results on both synthetic and real-world network datasets demonstrate the capabilities of learning the hidden topics and, more importantly, the number of topics.

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Analysis of Computational Science Papers from ICCS 2001-2016 using Topic Modeling and Graph Theory

Apr 18, 2017
Tesfamariam M. Abuhay, Sergey V. Kovalchuk, Klavdiya O. Bochenina, George Kampis, Valeria V. Krzhizhanovskaya, Michael H. Lees

This paper presents results of topic modeling and network models of topics using the International Conference on Computational Science corpus, which contains domain-specific (computational science) papers over sixteen years (a total of 5695 papers). We discuss topical structures of International Conference on Computational Science, how these topics evolve over time in response to the topicality of various problems, technologies and methods, and how all these topics relate to one another. This analysis illustrates multidisciplinary research and collaborations among scientific communities, by constructing static and dynamic networks from the topic modeling results and the keywords of authors. The results of this study give insights about the past and future trends of core discussion topics in computational science. We used the Non-negative Matrix Factorization topic modeling algorithm to discover topics and labeled and grouped results hierarchically.

* Accepted by International Conference on Computational Science (ICCS) 2017 which will be held in Zurich, Switzerland from June 11-June 14 
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A Topic Modeling Approach to Ranking

Jan 25, 2015
Weicong Ding, Prakash Ishwar, Venkatesh Saligrama

We propose a topic modeling approach to the prediction of preferences in pairwise comparisons. We develop a new generative model for pairwise comparisons that accounts for multiple shared latent rankings that are prevalent in a population of users. This new model also captures inconsistent user behavior in a natural way. We show how the estimation of latent rankings in the new generative model can be formally reduced to the estimation of topics in a statistically equivalent topic modeling problem. We leverage recent advances in the topic modeling literature to develop an algorithm that can learn shared latent rankings with provable consistency as well as sample and computational complexity guarantees. We demonstrate that the new approach is empirically competitive with the current state-of-the-art approaches in predicting preferences on some semi-synthetic and real world datasets.

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Text Modeling using Unsupervised Topic Models and Concept Hierarchies

Aug 07, 2008
Chaitanya Chemudugunta, Padhraic Smyth, Mark Steyvers

Statistical topic models provide a general data-driven framework for automated discovery of high-level knowledge from large collections of text documents. While topic models can potentially discover a broad range of themes in a data set, the interpretability of the learned topics is not always ideal. Human-defined concepts, on the other hand, tend to be semantically richer due to careful selection of words to define concepts but they tend not to cover the themes in a data set exhaustively. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic framework to combine a hierarchy of human-defined semantic concepts with statistical topic models to seek the best of both worlds. Experimental results using two different sources of concept hierarchies and two collections of text documents indicate that this combination leads to systematic improvements in the quality of the associated language models as well as enabling new techniques for inferring and visualizing the semantics of a document.

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Combinatorial Topic Models using Small-Variance Asymptotics

May 27, 2016
Ke Jiang, Suvrit Sra, Brian Kulis

Topic models have emerged as fundamental tools in unsupervised machine learning. Most modern topic modeling algorithms take a probabilistic view and derive inference algorithms based on Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) or its variants. In contrast, we study topic modeling as a combinatorial optimization problem, and propose a new objective function derived from LDA by passing to the small-variance limit. We minimize the derived objective by using ideas from combinatorial optimization, which results in a new, fast, and high-quality topic modeling algorithm. In particular, we show that our results are competitive with popular LDA-based topic modeling approaches, and also discuss the (dis)similarities between our approach and its probabilistic counterparts.

* 19 pages 
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Multi-view and Multi-source Transfers in Neural Topic Modeling with Pretrained Topic and Word Embeddings

Sep 17, 2019
Pankaj Gupta, Yatin Chaudhary, Hinrich Schütze

Though word embeddings and topics are complementary representations, several past works have only used pre-trained word embeddings in (neural) topic modeling to address data sparsity problem in short text or small collection of documents. However, no prior work has employed (pre-trained latent) topics in transfer learning paradigm. In this paper, we propose an approach to (1) perform knowledge transfer using latent topics obtained from a large source corpus, and (2) jointly transfer knowledge via the two representations (or views) in neural topic modeling to improve topic quality, better deal with polysemy and data sparsity issues in a target corpus. In doing so, we first accumulate topics and word representations from one or many source corpora to build a pool of topics and word vectors. Then, we identify one or multiple relevant source domain(s) and take advantage of corresponding topics and word features via the respective pools to guide meaningful learning in the sparse target domain. We quantify the quality of topic and document representations via generalization (perplexity), interpretability (topic coherence) and information retrieval (IR) using short-text, long-text, small and large document collections from news and medical domains. We have demonstrated the state-of-the-art results on topic modeling with the proposed framework.

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Nonparametric Topic Modeling with Neural Inference

Jun 18, 2018
Xuefei Ning, Yin Zheng, Zhuxi Jiang, Yu Wang, Huazhong Yang, Junzhou Huang

This work focuses on combining nonparametric topic models with Auto-Encoding Variational Bayes (AEVB). Specifically, we first propose iTM-VAE, where the topics are treated as trainable parameters and the document-specific topic proportions are obtained by a stick-breaking construction. The inference of iTM-VAE is modeled by neural networks such that it can be computed in a simple feed-forward manner. We also describe how to introduce a hyper-prior into iTM-VAE so as to model the uncertainty of the prior parameter. Actually, the hyper-prior technique is quite general and we show that it can be applied to other AEVB based models to alleviate the {\it collapse-to-prior} problem elegantly. Moreover, we also propose HiTM-VAE, where the document-specific topic distributions are generated in a hierarchical manner. HiTM-VAE is even more flexible and can generate topic distributions with better variability. Experimental results on 20News and Reuters RCV1-V2 datasets show that the proposed models outperform the state-of-the-art baselines significantly. The advantages of the hyper-prior technique and the hierarchical model construction are also confirmed by experiments.

* 11 pages, 2 figures 
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Learning Topic Models by Belief Propagation

Mar 24, 2012
Jia Zeng, William K. Cheung, Jiming Liu

Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) is an important hierarchical Bayesian model for probabilistic topic modeling, which attracts worldwide interests and touches on many important applications in text mining, computer vision and computational biology. This paper represents LDA as a factor graph within the Markov random field (MRF) framework, which enables the classic loopy belief propagation (BP) algorithm for approximate inference and parameter estimation. Although two commonly-used approximate inference methods, such as variational Bayes (VB) and collapsed Gibbs sampling (GS), have gained great successes in learning LDA, the proposed BP is competitive in both speed and accuracy as validated by encouraging experimental results on four large-scale document data sets. Furthermore, the BP algorithm has the potential to become a generic learning scheme for variants of LDA-based topic models. To this end, we show how to learn two typical variants of LDA-based topic models, such as author-topic models (ATM) and relational topic models (RTM), using BP based on the factor graph representation.

* IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Volume 33, Number 5, Pages 1121-1134, 2013 
* 14 pages, 17 figures 
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Multi-GPU Distributed Parallel Bayesian Differential Topic Modelling

Oct 22, 2015
Aaron Q Li

There is an explosion of data, documents, and other content, and people require tools to analyze and interpret these, tools to turn the content into information and knowledge. Topic modeling have been developed to solve these problems. Topic models such as LDA [Blei et. al. 2003] allow salient patterns in data to be extracted automatically. When analyzing texts, these patterns are called topics. Among numerous extensions of LDA, few of them can reliably analyze multiple groups of documents and extract topic similarities. Recently, the introduction of differential topic modeling (SPDP) [Chen et. al. 2012] performs uniformly better than many topic models in a discriminative setting. There is also a need to improve the sampling speed for topic models. While some effort has been made for distributed algorithms, there is no work currently done using graphical processing units (GPU). Note the GPU framework has already become the most cost-efficient platform for many problems. In this thesis, I propose and implement a scalable multi-GPU distributed parallel framework which approximates SPDP. Through experiments, I have shown my algorithms have a gain in speed of about 50 times while being almost as accurate, with only one single cheap laptop GPU. Furthermore, I have shown the speed improvement is sublinearly scalable when multiple GPUs are used, while fairly maintaining the accuracy. Therefore on a medium-sized GPU cluster, the speed improvement could potentially reach a factor of a thousand. Note SPDP is just a representative of other extensions of LDA. Although my algorithm is implemented to work with SPDP, it is designed to be a general enough to work with other topic models. The speed-up on smaller collections (i.e., 1000s of documents), means that these more complex LDA extensions could now be done in real-time, thus opening up a new way of using these LDA models in industry.

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Multi-source Neural Topic Modeling in Multi-view Embedding Spaces

Apr 17, 2021
Pankaj Gupta, Yatin Chaudhary, Hinrich Schütze

Though word embeddings and topics are complementary representations, several past works have only used pretrained word embeddings in (neural) topic modeling to address data sparsity in short-text or small collection of documents. This work presents a novel neural topic modeling framework using multi-view embedding spaces: (1) pretrained topic-embeddings, and (2) pretrained word-embeddings (context insensitive from Glove and context-sensitive from BERT models) jointly from one or many sources to improve topic quality and better deal with polysemy. In doing so, we first build respective pools of pretrained topic (i.e., TopicPool) and word embeddings (i.e., WordPool). We then identify one or more relevant source domain(s) and transfer knowledge to guide meaningful learning in the sparse target domain. Within neural topic modeling, we quantify the quality of topics and document representations via generalization (perplexity), interpretability (topic coherence) and information retrieval (IR) using short-text, long-text, small and large document collections from news and medical domains. Introducing the multi-source multi-view embedding spaces, we have shown state-of-the-art neural topic modeling using 6 source (high-resource) and 5 target (low-resource) corpora.

* NAACL2021, 13 pages, 14 tables, 2 figures. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1909.06563 
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