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"Sentiment": models, code, and papers

Towards Controlled Transformation of Sentiment in Sentences

Jan 31, 2019
Wouter Leeftink, Gerasimos Spanakis

An obstacle to the development of many natural language processing products is the vast amount of training examples necessary to get satisfactory results. The generation of these examples is often a tedious and time-consuming task. This paper this paper proposes a method to transform the sentiment of sentences in order to limit the work necessary to generate more training data. This means that one sentence can be transformed to an opposite sentiment sentence and should reduce by half the work required in the generation of text. The proposed pipeline consists of a sentiment classifier with an attention mechanism to highlight the short phrases that determine the sentiment of a sentence. Then, these phrases are changed to phrases of the opposite sentiment using a baseline model and an autoencoder approach. Experiments are run on both the separate parts of the pipeline as well as on the end-to-end model. The sentiment classifier is tested on its accuracy and is found to perform adequately. The autoencoder is tested on how well it is able to change the sentiment of an encoded phrase and it was found that such a task is possible. We use human evaluation to judge the performance of the full (end-to-end) pipeline and that reveals that a model using word vectors outperforms the encoder model. Numerical evaluation shows that a success rate of 54.7% is achieved on the sentiment change.

* Accepted at ICAART 2019, 8 pages 

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Improving Domain-Adapted Sentiment Classification by Deep Adversarial Mutual Learning

Feb 01, 2020
Qianming Xue, Wei Zhang, Hongyuan Zha

Domain-adapted sentiment classification refers to training on a labeled source domain to well infer document-level sentiment on an unlabeled target domain. Most existing relevant models involve a feature extractor and a sentiment classifier, where the feature extractor works towards learning domain-invariant features from both domains, and the sentiment classifier is trained only on the source domain to guide the feature extractor. As such, they lack a mechanism to use sentiment polarity lying in the target domain. To improve domain-adapted sentiment classification by learning sentiment from the target domain as well, we devise a novel deep adversarial mutual learning approach involving two groups of feature extractors, domain discriminators, sentiment classifiers, and label probers. The domain discriminators enable the feature extractors to obtain domain-invariant features. Meanwhile, the label prober in each group explores document sentiment polarity of the target domain through the sentiment prediction generated by the classifier in the peer group, and guides the learning of the feature extractor in its own group. The proposed approach achieves the mutual learning of the two groups in an end-to-end manner. Experiments on multiple public datasets indicate our method obtains the state-of-the-art performance, validating the effectiveness of mutual learning through label probers.

* Accepted to appear in AAAI'20 

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Automatic Construction of Context-Aware Sentiment Lexicon in the Financial Domain Using Direction-Dependent Words

Jun 10, 2021
Jihye Park, Hye Jin Lee, Sungzoon Cho

Increasing attention has been drawn to the sentiment analysis of financial documents. The most popular examples of such documents include analyst reports and economic news, the analysis of which is frequently used to capture the trends in market sentiments. On the other hand, the significance of the role sentiment analysis plays in the financial domain has given rise to the efforts to construct a financial domain-specific sentiment lexicon. Sentiment lexicons lend a hand for solving various text mining tasks, such as unsupervised classification of text data, while alleviating the arduous human labor required for manual labeling. One of the challenges in the construction of an effective sentiment lexicon is that the semantic orientation of a word may change depending on the context in which it appears. For instance, the word ``profit" usually conveys positive sentiments; however, when the word is juxtaposed with another word ``decrease," the sentiment associated with the phrase ``profit decreases" now becomes negative. Hence, the sentiment of a given word may shift as one begins to consider the context surrounding the word. In this paper, we address this issue by incorporating context when building sentiment lexicon from a given corpus. Specifically, we construct a lexicon named Senti-DD for the Sentiment lexicon composed of Direction-Dependent words, which expresses each term a pair of a directional word and a direction-dependent word. Experiment results show that higher classification performance is achieved with Senti-DD, proving the effectiveness of our method for automatically constructing a context-aware sentiment lexicon in the financial domain.


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Sentiment-based Candidate Selection for NMT

Apr 10, 2021
Alex Jones, Derry Tanti Wijaya

The explosion of user-generated content (UGC)--e.g. social media posts, comments, and reviews--has motivated the development of NLP applications tailored to these types of informal texts. Prevalent among these applications have been sentiment analysis and machine translation (MT). Grounded in the observation that UGC features highly idiomatic, sentiment-charged language, we propose a decoder-side approach that incorporates automatic sentiment scoring into the MT candidate selection process. We train separate English and Spanish sentiment classifiers, then, using n-best candidates generated by a baseline MT model with beam search, select the candidate that minimizes the absolute difference between the sentiment score of the source sentence and that of the translation, and perform a human evaluation to assess the produced translations. Unlike previous work, we select this minimally divergent translation by considering the sentiment scores of the source sentence and translation on a continuous interval, rather than using e.g. binary classification, allowing for more fine-grained selection of translation candidates. The results of human evaluations show that, in comparison to the open-source MT baseline model on top of which our sentiment-based pipeline is built, our pipeline produces more accurate translations of colloquial, sentiment-heavy source texts.

* 14 pages, 1 figure 

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Aspect Sentiment Quad Prediction as Paraphrase Generation

Oct 02, 2021
Wenxuan Zhang, Yang Deng, Xin Li, Yifei Yuan, Lidong Bing, Wai Lam

Aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) has been extensively studied in recent years, which typically involves four fundamental sentiment elements, including the aspect category, aspect term, opinion term, and sentiment polarity. Existing studies usually consider the detection of partial sentiment elements, instead of predicting the four elements in one shot. In this work, we introduce the Aspect Sentiment Quad Prediction (ASQP) task, aiming to jointly detect all sentiment elements in quads for a given opinionated sentence, which can reveal a more comprehensive and complete aspect-level sentiment structure. We further propose a novel \textsc{Paraphrase} modeling paradigm to cast the ASQP task to a paraphrase generation process. On one hand, the generation formulation allows solving ASQP in an end-to-end manner, alleviating the potential error propagation in the pipeline solution. On the other hand, the semantics of the sentiment elements can be fully exploited by learning to generate them in the natural language form. Extensive experiments on benchmark datasets show the superiority of our proposed method and the capacity of cross-task transfer with the proposed unified \textsc{Paraphrase} modeling framework.

* EMNLP 2021 Main Conference 

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Sentiment Analysis in Twitter for Macedonian

Sep 27, 2021
Dame Jovanoski, Veno Pachovski, Preslav Nakov

We present work on sentiment analysis in Twitter for Macedonian. As this is pioneering work for this combination of language and genre, we created suitable resources for training and evaluating a system for sentiment analysis of Macedonian tweets. In particular, we developed a corpus of tweets annotated with tweet-level sentiment polarity (positive, negative, and neutral), as well as with phrase-level sentiment, which we made freely available for research purposes. We further bootstrapped several large-scale sentiment lexicons for Macedonian, motivated by previous work for English. The impact of several different pre-processing steps as well as of various features is shown in experiments that represent the first attempt to build a system for sentiment analysis in Twitter for the morphologically rich Macedonian language. Overall, our experimental results show an F1-score of 92.16, which is very strong and is on par with the best results for English, which were achieved in recent SemEval competitions.

* RANLP-2015 
* sentiment analysis, Twitter, Macedonian 

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Leveraging Pre-trained Language Model for Speech Sentiment Analysis

Jun 11, 2021
Suwon Shon, Pablo Brusco, Jing Pan, Kyu J. Han, Shinji Watanabe

In this paper, we explore the use of pre-trained language models to learn sentiment information of written texts for speech sentiment analysis. First, we investigate how useful a pre-trained language model would be in a 2-step pipeline approach employing Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) and transcripts-based sentiment analysis separately. Second, we propose a pseudo label-based semi-supervised training strategy using a language model on an end-to-end speech sentiment approach to take advantage of a large, but unlabeled speech dataset for training. Although spoken and written texts have different linguistic characteristics, they can complement each other in understanding sentiment. Therefore, the proposed system can not only model acoustic characteristics to bear sentiment-specific information in speech signals, but learn latent information to carry sentiments in the text representation. In these experiments, we demonstrate the proposed approaches improve F1 scores consistently compared to systems without a language model. Moreover, we also show that the proposed framework can reduce 65% of human supervision by leveraging a large amount of data without human sentiment annotation and boost performance in a low-resource condition where the human sentiment annotation is not available enough.

* To appear in Interspeech 2021 

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Senti-Attend: Image Captioning using Sentiment and Attention

Nov 24, 2018
Omid Mohamad Nezami, Mark Dras, Stephen Wan, Cecile Paris

There has been much recent work on image captioning models that describe the factual aspects of an image. Recently, some models have incorporated non-factual aspects into the captions, such as sentiment or style. However, such models typically have difficulty in balancing the semantic aspects of the image and the non-factual dimensions of the caption; in addition, it can be observed that humans may focus on different aspects of an image depending on the chosen sentiment or style of the caption. To address this, we design an attention-based model to better add sentiment to image captions. The model embeds and learns sentiment with respect to image-caption data, and uses both high-level and word-level sentiment information during the learning process. The model outperforms the state-of-the-art work in image captioning with sentiment using standard evaluation metrics. An analysis of generated captions also shows that our model does this by a better selection of the sentiment-bearing adjectives and adjective-noun pairs.


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Deep neural network-based classification model for Sentiment Analysis

Jul 03, 2019
Donghang Pan, Jingling Yuan, Lin Li, Deming Sheng

The growing prosperity of social networks has brought great challenges to the sentimental tendency mining of users. As more and more researchers pay attention to the sentimental tendency of online users, rich research results have been obtained based on the sentiment classification of explicit texts. However, research on the implicit sentiment of users is still in its infancy. Aiming at the difficulty of implicit sentiment classification, a research on implicit sentiment classification model based on deep neural network is carried out. Classification models based on DNN, LSTM, Bi-LSTM and CNN were established to judge the tendency of the user's implicit sentiment text. Based on the Bi-LSTM model, the classification model of word-level attention mechanism is studied. The experimental results on the public dataset show that the established LSTM series classification model and CNN classification model can achieve good sentiment classification effect, and the classification effect is significantly better than the DNN model. The Bi-LSTM based attention mechanism classification model obtained the optimal R value in the positive category identification.


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Does BERT look at sentiment lexicon?

Nov 19, 2021
Elena Razova, Sergey Vychegzhanin, Evgeny Kotelnikov

The main approaches to sentiment analysis are rule-based methods and ma-chine learning, in particular, deep neural network models with the Trans-former architecture, including BERT. The performance of neural network models in the tasks of sentiment analysis is superior to the performance of rule-based methods. The reasons for this situation remain unclear due to the poor interpretability of deep neural network models. One of the main keys to understanding the fundamental differences between the two approaches is the analysis of how sentiment lexicon is taken into account in neural network models. To this end, we study the attention weights matrices of the Russian-language RuBERT model. We fine-tune RuBERT on sentiment text corpora and compare the distributions of attention weights for sentiment and neutral lexicons. It turns out that, on average, 3/4 of the heads of various model var-iants statistically pay more attention to the sentiment lexicon compared to the neutral one.

* 14 pages, 3 tables, 3 figures. Accepted to AIST-2021 conference 

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