High-resolution images are widely adopted for high-performance object detection in videos. However, processing high-resolution inputs comes with high computation costs, and naive down-sampling of the input to reduce the computation costs quickly degrades the detection performance. In this paper, we propose SALISA, a novel non-uniform SALiency-based Input SAmpling technique for video object detection that allows for heavy down-sampling of unimportant background regions while preserving the fine-grained details of a high-resolution image. The resulting image is spatially smaller, leading to reduced computational costs while enabling a performance comparable to a high-resolution input. To achieve this, we propose a differentiable resampling module based on a thin plate spline spatial transformer network (TPS-STN). This module is regularized by a novel loss to provide an explicit supervision signal to learn to "magnify" salient regions. We report state-of-the-art results in the low compute regime on the ImageNet-VID and UA-DETRAC video object detection datasets. We demonstrate that on both datasets, the mAP of an EfficientDet-D1 (EfficientDet-D2) gets on par with EfficientDet-D2 (EfficientDet-D3) at a much lower computational cost. We also show that SALISA significantly improves the detection of small objects. In particular, SALISA with an EfficientDet-D1 detector improves the detection of small objects by $77\%$, and remarkably also outperforms EfficientDetD3 baseline.
3D object detection from LiDAR data for autonomous driving has been making remarkable strides in recent years. Among the state-of-the-art methodologies, encoding point clouds into a bird's-eye view (BEV) has been demonstrated to be both effective and efficient. Different from perspective views, BEV preserves rich spatial and distance information between objects; and while farther objects of the same type do not appear smaller in the BEV, they contain sparser point cloud features. This fact weakens BEV feature extraction using shared-weight convolutional neural networks. In order to address this challenge, we propose Range-Aware Attention Network (RAANet), which extracts more powerful BEV features and generates superior 3D object detections. The range-aware attention (RAA) convolutions significantly improve feature extraction for near as well as far objects. Moreover, we propose a novel auxiliary loss for density estimation to further enhance the detection accuracy of RAANet for occluded objects. It is worth to note that our proposed RAA convolution is lightweight and compatible to be integrated into any CNN architecture used for the BEV detection. Extensive experiments on the nuScenes dataset demonstrate that our proposed approach outperforms the state-of-the-art methods for LiDAR-based 3D object detection, with real-time inference speed of 16 Hz for the full version and 22 Hz for the lite version. The code is publicly available at an anonymous Github repository https://github.com/anonymous0522/RAAN.
We propose a novel object localization methodology with the purpose of boosting the localization accuracy of state-of-the-art object detection systems. Our model, given a search region, aims at returning the bounding box of an object of interest inside this region. To accomplish its goal, it relies on assigning conditional probabilities to each row and column of this region, where these probabilities provide useful information regarding the location of the boundaries of the object inside the search region and allow the accurate inference of the object bounding box under a simple probabilistic framework. For implementing our localization model, we make use of a convolutional neural network architecture that is properly adapted for this task, called LocNet. We show experimentally that LocNet achieves a very significant improvement on the mAP for high IoU thresholds on PASCAL VOC2007 test set and that it can be very easily coupled with recent state-of-the-art object detection systems, helping them to boost their performance. Finally, we demonstrate that our detection approach can achieve high detection accuracy even when it is given as input a set of sliding windows, thus proving that it is independent of box proposal methods.
Fully supervised object detection has achieved great success in recent years. However, abundant bounding boxes annotations are needed for training a detector for novel classes. To reduce the human labeling effort, we propose a novel webly supervised object detection (WebSOD) method for novel classes which only requires the web images without further annotations. Our proposed method combines bottom-up and top-down cues for novel class detection. Within our approach, we introduce a bottom-up mechanism based on the well-trained fully supervised object detector (i.e. Faster RCNN) as an object region estimator for web images by recognizing the common objectiveness shared by base and novel classes. With the estimated regions on the web images, we then utilize the top-down attention cues as the guidance for region classification. Furthermore, we propose a residual feature refinement (RFR) block to tackle the domain mismatch between web domain and the target domain. We demonstrate our proposed method on PASCAL VOC dataset with three different novel/base splits. Without any target-domain novel-class images and annotations, our proposed webly supervised object detection model is able to achieve promising performance for novel classes. Moreover, we also conduct transfer learning experiments on large scale ILSVRC 2013 detection dataset and achieve state-of-the-art performance.
Object detection in video is crucial for many applications. Compared to images, video provides additional cues which can help to disambiguate the detection problem. Our goal in this paper is to learn discriminative models for the temporal evolution of object appearance and to use such models for object detection. To model temporal evolution, we introduce space-time tubes corresponding to temporal sequences of bounding boxes. We propose two CNN architectures for generating and classifying tubes, respectively. Our tube proposal network (TPN) first generates a large number of spatio-temporal tube proposals maximizing object recall. The Tube-CNN then implements a tube-level object detector in the video. Our method improves state of the art on two large-scale datasets for object detection in video: HollywoodHeads and ImageNet VID. Tube models show particular advantages in difficult dynamic scenes.
Although YOLOv2 approach is extremely fast on object detection; its backbone network has the low ability on feature extraction and fails to make full use of multi-scale local region features, which restricts the improvement of object detection accuracy. Therefore, this paper proposed a DC-SPP-YOLO (Dense Connection and Spatial Pyramid Pooling Based YOLO) approach for ameliorating the object detection accuracy of YOLOv2. Specifically, the dense connection of convolution layers is employed in the backbone network of YOLOv2 to strengthen the feature extraction and alleviate the vanishing-gradient problem. Moreover, an improved spatial pyramid pooling is introduced to pool and concatenate the multi-scale local region features, so that the network can learn the object features more comprehensively. The DC-SPP-YOLO model is established and trained based on a new loss function composed of mean square error and cross entropy, and the object detection is realized. Experiments demonstrate that the mAP (mean Average Precision) of DC-SPP-YOLO proposed on PASCAL VOC datasets and UA-DETRAC datasets is higher than that of YOLOv2; the object detection accuracy of DC-SPP-YOLO is superior to YOLOv2 by strengthening feature extraction and using the multi-scale local region features.
The ability to accurately detect and localize objects is recognized as being the most important for the perception of self-driving cars. From 2D to 3D object detection, the most difficult is to determine the distance from the ego-vehicle to objects. Expensive technology like LiDAR can provide a precise and accurate depth information, so most studies have tended to focus on this sensor showing a performance gap between LiDAR-based methods and camera-based methods. Although many authors have investigated how to fuse LiDAR with RGB cameras, as far as we know there are no studies to fuse LiDAR and stereo in a deep neural network for the 3D object detection task. This paper presents SLS-Fusion, a new approach to fuse data from 4-beam LiDAR and a stereo camera via a neural network for depth estimation to achieve better dense depth maps and thereby improves 3D object detection performance. Since 4-beam LiDAR is cheaper than the well-known 64-beam LiDAR, this approach is also classified as a low-cost sensors-based method. Through evaluation on the KITTI benchmark, it is shown that the proposed method significantly improves depth estimation performance compared to a baseline method. Also, when applying it to 3D object detection, a new state of the art on low-cost sensor based method is achieved.
Data augmentation is a key component of CNN based image recognition tasks like object detection. However, it is relatively less explored for 3D object detection. Many standard 2D object detection data augmentation techniques do not extend to 3D box. Extension of these data augmentations for 3D object detection requires adaptation of the 3D geometry of the input scene and synthesis of new viewpoints. This requires accurate depth information of the scene which may not be always available. In this paper, we evaluate existing 2D data augmentations and propose two novel augmentations for monocular 3D detection without a requirement for novel view synthesis. We evaluate these augmentations on the RTM3D detection model firstly due to the shorter training times . We obtain a consistent improvement by 4% in the 3D AP (@IoU=0.7) for cars, ~1.8% scores 3D AP (@IoU=0.25) for pedestrians & cyclists, over the baseline on KITTI car detection dataset. We also demonstrate a rigorous evaluation of the mAP scores by re-weighting them to take into account the class imbalance in the KITTI validation dataset.
While general object detection with deep learning has achieved great success in the past few years, the performance and efficiency of detecting small objects are far from satisfactory. The most common and effective way to promote small object detection is to use high-resolution images or feature maps. However, both approaches induce costly computation since the computational cost grows squarely as the size of images and features increases. To get the best of two worlds, we propose QueryDet that uses a novel query mechanism to accelerate the inference speed of feature-pyramid based object detectors. The pipeline composes two steps: it first predicts the coarse locations of small objects on low-resolution features and then computes the accurate detection results using high-resolution features sparsely guided by those coarse positions. In this way, we can not only harvest the benefit of high-resolution feature maps but also avoid useless computation for the background area. On the popular COCO dataset, the proposed method improves the detection mAP by 1.0 and mAP-small by 2.0, and the high-resolution inference speed is improved to 3.0x on average. On VisDrone dataset, which contains more small objects, we create a new state-of-the-art while gaining a 2.3x high-resolution acceleration on average. Code is available at: https://github.com/ChenhongyiYang/QueryDet-PyTorch
Detecting the relations among objects, such as "cat on sofa" and "person ride horse", is a crucial task in image understanding, and beneficial to bridging the semantic gap between images and natural language. Despite the remarkable progress of deep learning in detection and recognition of individual objects, it is still a challenging task to localize and recognize the relations between objects due to the complex combinatorial nature of various kinds of object relations. Inspired by the recent advances in one-shot learning, we propose a simple yet effective Semantics Induced Learner (SIL) model for solving this challenging task. Learning in one-shot manner can enable a detection model to adapt to a huge number of object relations with diverse appearance effectively and robustly. In addition, the SIL combines bottom-up and top-down attention mech- anisms, therefore enabling attention at the level of vision and semantics favorably. Within our proposed model, the bottom-up mechanism, which is based on Faster R-CNN, proposes objects regions, and the top-down mechanism selects and integrates visual features according to semantic information. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework over other state-of-the-art methods on two large-scale data sets for object relation detection.